Silesian Wars

First Silesian WarSilesian WarSecond Silesian WarThird Silesian WarSilesian1740a series of warsannexation of SilesiaAustria's wars with Prussia in the 1740sFirst
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.wikipedia
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Frederick the Great

Frederick IIFrederick II of PrussiaFrederick
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia.

First Silesian War

First
The First (1740–42) and Second (1744–45) Silesian Wars formed a part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession, while the Third Silesian War (1756–63) was one theater of the Seven Years' War.
It was the first in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid 1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Third Silesian War

The First (1740–42) and Second (1744–45) Silesian Wars formed a part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession, while the Third Silesian War (1756–63) was one theater of the Seven Years' War.
It was the third in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid 1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Second Silesian War

Second
The First (1740–42) and Second (1744–45) Silesian Wars formed a part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession, while the Third Silesian War (1756–63) was one theater of the Seven Years' War.
It was the second in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid 1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Austria–Prussia rivalry

German DualismdualismAustria
Prussia's repeated victories (and possession of Silesia) foreshadowed a wider Austro-Prussian struggle for hegemony over the German-speaking peoples that would culminate in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.
The rivalry sometimes led to open warfare, from the Silesian Wars and Seven Years' War of the middle 1700s to the conflict's culmination in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Duchy of Legnica

LegnicaDuke of LegnicaLiegnitz
Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg if the Silesian Piasts should become extinct.
Formed by Bolesław II the Bald, Duke of Lower Silesia at Wrocław, Legnica shared the fate of most of the others Silesian duchies, falling into Bohemian, Austrian and eventually - after the First Silesian War - Prussian spheres of influence.

Silesia

ŚląskSilesianSchlesien
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Meanwhile, Austrian Silesia, the small portion of Silesia retained by Austria after the Silesian Wars, was mostly awarded to the new Czechoslovakia (becoming known as Czech Silesia), although most of Cieszyn and territory to the east of it went to Poland as Zaolzie.

Prussian Army

PrussianArmyPrussian troops
After Emperor Charles's death on 20 October, Frederick quickly resolved to strike first; on 8 November he ordered the mobilization of the Prussian army, and on 11 December he issued an ultimatum to Maria Theresa demanding the surrender of Silesia.
King Frederick the Great, a formidable battle commander, led the disciplined Prussian troops to victory during the 18th-century Silesian Wars and greatly increased the prestige of the Kingdom of Prussia.

House of Hohenzollern

HohenzollernHohenzollernsHohenzollern dynasty
Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg if the Silesian Piasts should become extinct.
Frederick William's successor, Frederick the Great gained Silesia in the Silesian Wars so that Prussia emerged as a great power.

Świebodzin

SchwiebusCounty of SchwiebusSchwiebus (Świebodzin)
In 1685, when Austria was engaged in the Great Turkish War, Emperor Leopold I gave Elector Frederick William immediate control of the Silesian exclave of Schwiebus in return for military support against the Turks and the surrender of the outstanding Hohenzollern claims in Silesia.
After the victory of King Frederick II of Prussia in the First Silesian War (1740–1742), Schwiebus came under Prussian administration.

Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussians
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory. Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg if the Silesian Piasts should become extinct.
Prussian gains in the Silesian Wars led to the formation of the Province of Silesia in 1740.

Duchy of Teschen

TeschenCieszynCieszyn branch
Under British pressure, Austria agreed to concede to Prussia the large majority of Silesia, along with the County of Glatz in Bohemia, while Austria would retain two small portions of the extreme southern end of Silesia, including the Duchy of Teschen and parts of the Duchies of Jägerndorf, Troppau, and Neisse.
While the bulk of Silesia was conquered by the Prussian king Frederick the Great in the Silesian Wars of 1740–1763, Teschen together with the duchies of Troppau (Opava), Krnov and Nysa remained with the Habsburg Monarchy and merged into the Austrian Silesia crown land in 1849.

Treaty of Breslau

BreslauPeace of Breslauannexation
This peace agreement was adopted with the Treaty of Breslau, which ended the First Silesian War on 11 June 1742, and later formalized in the Treaty of Berlin.
The Treaty of Breslau was a preliminary peace agreement signed on 11 June 1742 following long negotiations at the Silesian capital Wrocław (Breslau) by emissaries of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria and King Frederick II of Prussia ending the First Silesian War.

Brzeg

BriegBrzeg (Brieg)Brieg (Brzeg)
By the end of January 1741, almost the entirety of Silesia was under Prussian control, and the remaining Austrian strongholds of Glogau, Brieg and Neisse were besieged.
Brieg and most of Silesia were annexed by Prussia in 1741 during the First Silesian War.

Treaty of Berlin (1742)

Treaty of BerlinBerlin1742 partition of Silesia
This peace agreement was adopted with the Treaty of Breslau, which ended the First Silesian War on 11 June 1742, and later formalized in the Treaty of Berlin.
It was the formal peace treaty that confirmed the preliminary agreement achieved with English mediation by the 11 June Treaty of Breslau, and officially ended the First Silesian War.

Duchy of Brzeg

BrzegBriegDuke of Brzeg
Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg if the Silesian Piasts should become extinct.
Several decades later King Frederick II of Prussia used the dispute as a pretext to justify his campaign during the First Silesian War in 1740.

Kłodzko

GlatzKladskoGlatz (Kłodzko)
In December 1741, Prussian forces advanced into Moravia, occupying the capital at Olmütz, and besieged the fortress at Glatz on the edge of Bohemia.
The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Glatz during the 18th century Silesian Wars, although Austrian influence is still evident in the architecture and culture of the region.

Margraviate of Brandenburg

BrandenburgMargrave of BrandenburgMargraves of Brandenburg
Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Electorate of Brandenburg if the Silesian Piasts should become extinct.
King Frederick William I of Prussia, the "Soldier-King", modernized the Prussian Army, while his son Frederick the Great achieved glory and infamy with the Silesian Wars and Partitions of Poland.

Duchy of Krnov

KrnovJägerndorfDuchy of Jägerndorf
In 1603, Hohenzollern Elector Joachim III Frederick of Brandenburg also inherited the Silesian Duchy of Jägerndorf from his cousin, Margrave George Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and installed his second son, Johann Georg as duke.
The House of Hohenzollern never withdrew the claims and more than one hundred years later, the Krnov and Racibórz possessions were a pretext for the Prussian king Frederick the Great to start the First Silesian War, ending with the annexation of most of Silesia according to the Treaty of Breslau in 1742.

Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau

Leopold ILeopold of Anhalt-DessauLeopold I of Anhalt-Dessau
Meanwhile, another Prussian army under Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau advanced into western Saxony, attacking and destroying the main Saxon army in the Battle of Kesselsdorf on 15 December, after which the Prussians occupied Dresden.
The last great achievement of his military career was commanding the Prussian troops to victory over the Saxons at the Battle of Kesselsdorf in 1745 during the Second Silesian War.

Upper Silesia

UpperSilesiaSilesian
In February 1742, Frederick organized a joint advance through Moravia toward Vienna with the Saxons and French, but the allies were reluctant and uncooperative, and the campaign was abandoned in April, after which the Prussians withdrew into Bohemia and Upper Silesia.
Lower Silesia and most of Upper Silesia were occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 during the First Silesian War and annexed by the terms of the Treaty of Breslau.

Wars and battles involving Prussia

Wars and battles involving Prussia
In the 18th century Prussia began to adopt an independent role in the conflicts of that time; at the latest by the time of the Silesian Wars.

Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VIICharles AlbertEmperor Charles VII
By the summer of 1743, Austria recovered control of Bohemia, drove the French back across the Rhine into Alsace, and occupied Bavaria, exiling the Bavarian Elector Charles Albert (now crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII) to Frankfurt.
The new campaign of Frederick II of Prussia during the Second Silesian War finally forced the Austrian army to leave Bavaria and to retreat back into Bohemia.

County of Kladsko

County of GlatzGlatzKladsko
Under British pressure, Austria agreed to concede to Prussia the large majority of Silesia, along with the County of Glatz in Bohemia, while Austria would retain two small portions of the extreme southern end of Silesia, including the Duchy of Teschen and parts of the Duchies of Jägerndorf, Troppau, and Neisse.
When in 1740 King Frederick II of Prussia started the First Silesian War he occupied most of Silesia and also the County of Kladsko, which the king considered to be a vital forward post at the border with the Austrian lands under Empress Maria Theresa.

Duchy of Nysa

NysaDuchy of NeisseDuke of Nysa
Under British pressure, Austria agreed to concede to Prussia the large majority of Silesia, along with the County of Glatz in Bohemia, while Austria would retain two small portions of the extreme southern end of Silesia, including the Duchy of Teschen and parts of the Duchies of Jägerndorf, Troppau, and Neisse.
The episcopate was abandoned by the bishops during the Silesian Wars.