Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsiliciumSilicon (Si)Metallurgical grade siliconsilicon metalSilicateSilicon AgeSilicon compoundsaluminium-silicon alloy
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.wikipedia
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Metalloid

metalloidsMetallicmetalloid staircase
It is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre; and it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor.
The six commonly recognised metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.

Carbon group

group 1414group IV
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

Germanium

GeGe diodesGerman
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. In 1787, Antoine Lavoisier suspected that silica might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element, but the chemical affinity of silicon for oxygen is high enough that he had no means to reduce the oxide and isolate the element.
The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
It is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre; and it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor.
Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table.

Silicate

silicatessilicasilicified
It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x < 2.

Silicon carbide

carborundumSiCSiC-MOSFET
Silicon compounds such as silicon carbide are used as abrasives and components of high-strength ceramics.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.

Silicone

siliconespolysiloxanesilicone gel
Silicon is the basis of the widely used synthetic polymers called silicones.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
The relatively small portion of very highly purified elemental silicon used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is essential to the metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) transistors and integrated circuit chips used in most modern technology (such as computers and cell phones, for example).
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material that is normally silicon.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
Free silicon is also used in the steel refining, aluminium-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica).
By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
The relatively small portion of very highly purified elemental silicon used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is essential to the metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) transistors and integrated circuit chips used in most modern technology (such as computers and cell phones, for example).
The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip technologies in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the 1970s.

Silicon dioxide

silicasiliceousSiO 2
It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. In 1787, Antoine Lavoisier suspected that silica might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element, but the chemical affinity of silicon for oxygen is high enough that he had no means to reduce the oxide and isolate the element.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.

Silicate minerals

silicate mineralphyllosilicatephyllosilicates
More than 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.
A silicate mineral is generally an ionic compound whose anions consist predominantly of silicon and oxygen atoms.

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

Earth's crustmost abundant element in the Earth's crustat relatively trace concentrations of parts per million each
More than 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.
α-tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure, similar to diamond, silicon or germanium.

Rock (geology)

stonerockrocks
Such use includes industrial construction with clays, silica sand, and stone.
Many rocks contain silica (SiO 2 ); a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74.3% of the Earth's crust.

Ceramic

ceramicsceramic materialsceramicist
They are also used in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass and many other specialty glasses.
Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.
Diamond has the same cubic structure as silicon and germanium, and because of the strength of the carbon-carbon bonds, it is the hardest naturally occurring substance measured by resistance to scratching.

Thomas Thomson (chemist)

Thomas ThomsonThomsonProfessor Thomas Thomson
Silicon was given its present name in 1817 by Scottish chemist Thomas Thomson.
His scientific accomplishments include the invention of the saccharometer and he gave silicon its current name.

Silicene

Later, more cost-effective methods have been developed to isolate several allotrope forms, the most recent being silicene in 2010.
Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon, with a hexagonal honeycomb structure similar to that of graphene.

Antoine Lavoisier

LavoisierAntoine-Laurent LavoisierAntoine Laurent Lavoisier
In 1787, Antoine Lavoisier suspected that silica might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element, but the chemical affinity of silicon for oxygen is high enough that he had no means to reduce the oxide and isolate the element.
He predicted the existence of silicon (1787) and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound.

Boron

Bboron-10 10 B
Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron.
The chemical behavior of boron resembles that of silicon more than aluminium.

Silane

SiH 4 monosilanesilyl
Meanwhile, research on the chemistry of silicon continued; Friedrich Wöhler discovered the first volatile hydrides of silicon, synthesising trichlorosilane in 1857 and silane itself in 1858, but a detailed investigation of the silanes was only carried out in the early 20th century by Alfred Stock, despite early speculation on the matter dating as far back as the beginnings of synthetic organic chemistry in the 1830s.
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH 4, making it a group 14 hydride.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
Free silicon is also used in the steel refining, aluminium-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica).
Additional elements, most frequently considered undesirable, are also important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and copper.