Silicon carbide

carborundumSiCSiC-MOSFETSiC-VVVFsilicon carbide (SiC)6H-SiCcarbidecarbon ceramiccarborundum powdercarborundum printmaking
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.wikipedia
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Moissanite

It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite.
Moissanite is naturally occurring silicon carbide and its various crystalline polymorphs.

Silicon

SisiliciumSilicon (Si)
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon compounds such as silicon carbide are used as abrasives and components of high-strength ceramics.

Ceramic

ceramicsceramic materialstemper
Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests.
The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide.

Edward Goodrich Acheson

Edward AchesonAcheson, E.G.Acheson, Edward Goodrich
Wide-scale production is credited to Edward Goodrich Acheson in 1890.
Born in Washington, Pennsylvania, he was the inventor of the Acheson process, which is still used to make Silicon carbide (carborundum) and later a manufacturer of carborundum and graphite.

Acheson process

Acheson GraphiteAcheson patented the methodinvented
Acheson patented the method for making silicon carbide powder on February 28, 1893.
The Acheson process is a process to synthesize graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), named after its inventor Edward Goodrich Acheson.

Crystal detector

cat's whiskercat's whisker detectorcat's-whisker detector
Electronic applications of silicon carbide such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907.
Crystals that required a light pressure like galena were used with the wire cat whisker contact; silicon was used with a heavier point contact, while silicon carbide (carborundum) could tolerate the heaviest pressure.

Abrasive

abrasivesbonded abrasiveabrasion
Synthetic SiC powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive.
Silicon carbide (carborundum)

Sintering

sinteredsinterdensification
Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests.
Materials for which liquid phase sintering is common are Si 3 N 4, WC, SiC, and more.

Lely method

Large single crystals of silicon carbide can be grown by the Lely method and they can be cut into gems known as synthetic moissanite.
The Lely method or Lely process is a crystal growth technology used for producing silicon carbide crystals for the semi-conductor industry.

Chemical vapor deposition

chemical vapour depositionCVDchemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Cubic SiC is usually grown by the more expensive process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
These materials include: silicon (dioxide, carbide, nitride, oxynitride), carbon (fiber, nanofibers, nanotubes, diamond and graphene), fluorocarbons, filaments, tungsten, titanium nitride and various high-k dielectrics.

Bulletproof vest

ballistic vestbody armorbulletproof vests
Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests.
These "Chicken Plates" were made of either boron carbide, silicon carbide, or aluminium oxide.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
A few carbides are covalent lattices, like carborundum (SiC), which resembles diamond.

Oleg Losev

O. V. LosevOleg Vladimirovich Losev
Those experiments were later repeated by O. V. Losev in the Soviet Union in 1923.
In the course of investigating biased junctions as a technician at Nizhny Novgorod, Losev noticed that when direct current was passed through a silicon carbide (carborundum) point contact junction, a spot of greenish light was given off at the contact point.

Poly(methylsilyne)

polymethylsilyne
Pure silicon carbide can also be prepared by the thermal decomposition of a polymer, poly(methylsilyne), under an inert atmosphere at low temperatures.
Upon thermolysis in argon at atmospheric pressure to 3 atmospheres and temperatures of 200 °C to 450 °C, decomposition of poly(methylsilyne) results in silicon carbide.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon. Silicon carbide is a semiconductor, which can be doped n-type by nitrogen or phosphorus and p-type by beryllium, boron, aluminium, or gallium.
Binary compounds, particularly between elements in Groups 13 and 15, such as gallium arsenide, Groups 12 and 16, groups 14 and 16, and between different group 14 elements, e.g. silicon carbide.

Cosmic dust

interstellar dustdustspace dust
It is a common form of stardust found around carbon-rich stars, and examples of this stardust have been found in pristine condition in primitive (unaltered) meteorites.
Prominent are silicon carbide, graphite, aluminium oxide, aluminium spinel, and other such solids that would condense at high temperature from a cooling gas, such as in stellar winds or in the decompression of the inside of a supernova.

Dragon Skin

Dragon Skin body armorDragon Skin body armour
Dragon Skin, which was produced by Pinnacle Armor, used disks of silicon carbide.
The discs are composed of silicon carbide ceramic matrices and laminates, much like the larger ceramic plates in other types of bullet resistant vests.

Diamond cubic

diamonddiamond latticediamond crystal
The beta modification (β-SiC), with a zinc blende crystal structure (similar to diamond), is formed at temperatures below 1700 °C. Until recently, the beta form has had relatively few commercial uses, although there is now increasing interest in its use as a support for heterogeneous catalysts, owing to its higher surface area compared to the alpha form.
Many compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, β-silicon carbide, and indium antimonide adopt the analogous zincblende structure, where each atom has nearest neighbors of an unlike element.

Type-I superconductor

type-IType Isuperconductors
On the contrary, SiC:B is type-I.
The only alloy known up to now which exhibits type I superconductivity is TaSi 2 . The covalent superconductor SiC:B, silicon carbide heavily doped with boron, is also type-I.

Graphite

graphiticblack leadplumbago
The material formed in the Acheson furnace varies in purity, according to its distance from the graphite resistor heat source.
In the mid-1890s, Acheson discovered that overheating carborundum (silicon carbide or SiC) produced almost pure graphite.

Henri Moissan

H. MoissanMoissanFerdinand Frédéric Henri Moissan
In 1893, Ferdinand Henri Moissan discovered the very rare naturally occurring SiC mineral while examining rock samples found in the Canyon Diablo meteorite in Arizona.
In these fragments he discovered minute quantities of a new mineral and, after extensive research, Moissan concluded that this mineral was made of silicon carbide.

Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody

General H. H. C. DunwoodyHenry H. C. Dunwoody
A crystal radio "carborundum" (synthetic silicon carbide) detector diode was patented by Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody in 1906.
Known in his own time for his work with the Army's Weather Bureau, Henry Harrison Chase Dunwoody invented the carborundum radio detector in 1906.

Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company

electric arc smelter
In 1900 the company settled with the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company when a judge's decision gave "priority broadly" to its founders "for reducing ores and other substances by the incandescent method".
In 1893, after Eugene's death, Maybery questioned a presentation that to him indicated the Cowles patents were infringed by the carborundum process of Edward Acheson (Acheson process).

Sandpaper

sandingsandedsand paper
Particles of silicon carbide are laminated to paper to create sandpapers and the grip tape on skateboards.
In 1921, 3M invented a sandpaper with silicon carbide grit and a waterproof adhesive and backing, known as Wet and dry.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Silicon carbide is a semiconductor, which can be doped n-type by nitrogen or phosphorus and p-type by beryllium, boron, aluminium, or gallium.
The essentially covalent silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) and germanium nitride (Ge 3 N 4 ) are also known: silicon nitride in particular would make a promising ceramic if not for the difficulty of working with and sintering it. In particular, the group 13 nitrides, most of which are promising semiconductors, are isoelectronic with graphite, diamond, and silicon carbide and have similar structures: their bonding changes from covalent to partially ionic to metallic as the group is descended.