Silures

SiluriaSilurianSilureKing of Siluria
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.wikipedia
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Ordovices

Ordovices tribeOrdovice
They were bordered to the north by the Ordovices; to the east by the Dobunni; and to the west by the Demetae.
Their tribal lands were located in present-day North Wales and England between the Silures to the south and the Deceangli to the north-east.

British Iron Age

Iron AgeBritainIron Age Britain
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.
The Roman historian Tacitus suggested that the Britons were descended from people who had arrived from the continent, comparing the Caledonians (in modern-day Scotland) to their Germanic neighbours; the Silures of Southern Wales to Iberian settlers; and the inhabitants of Southeast Britannia to Gaulish tribes.

Dobunni

DobuniDobuniiDobunna
They were bordered to the north by the Ordovices; to the east by the Dobunni; and to the west by the Demetae.
Their territory was bordered by the Cornovii and Corieltauvi to the North; the Catuvellauni to the East; the Atrebates and Belgae to the South; and the Silures and Ordovices to the West.

Caerwent

Dewstow
The Iron Age hillfort at Llanmelin near Caerwent has sometimes been suggested as a pre-Roman tribal centre, but the view of most archaeologists is that the people who became known as the Silures were a loose network of groups with some shared cultural values, rather than a centralised society. The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in AD 75.
It was founded by the Romans as the market town of Venta Silurum, an important settlement of the Brythonic Silures tribe.

Demetae

DemetiaDemetians
They were bordered to the north by the Ordovices; to the east by the Dobunni; and to the west by the Demetae.
They are mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia, as being west of the Silures.

Chepstow

Thornwell (Chepstow)
Although the most obvious physical remains of the Silures are hillforts such as those at Llanmelin and Sudbrook, there is also archaeological evidence of roundhouses at Gwehelog, Thornwell (Chepstow) and elsewhere, and evidence of lowland occupation notably at Goldcliff. The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in AD 75.
The name Gwent itself derives from the Roman settlement Venta Silurum or 'Market of the Silures', now named Caerwent, 5 mi west of Chepstow, which had been the Romano-British commercial centre of south-east Wales.

Sudbrook, Monmouthshire

SudbrookSouthbrook, Monmouthshire
Although the most obvious physical remains of the Silures are hillforts such as those at Llanmelin and Sudbrook, there is also archaeological evidence of roundhouses at Gwehelog, Thornwell (Chepstow) and elsewhere, and evidence of lowland occupation notably at Goldcliff.
An Iron age hillfort is located on the coast, probably built and occupied by the Silures from the 2nd century BC and occupied by the Romans from the 1st century AD until the 4th century.

Goldcliff, Newport

Goldcliff
Although the most obvious physical remains of the Silures are hillforts such as those at Llanmelin and Sudbrook, there is also archaeological evidence of roundhouses at Gwehelog, Thornwell (Chepstow) and elsewhere, and evidence of lowland occupation notably at Goldcliff.
Goldcliff has notable evidence of occupation by the Silures.

Llanvair Discoed

LlanmelinLlanmelin Wood Hill FortLlanvair-Discoed
The Iron Age hillfort at Llanmelin near Caerwent has sometimes been suggested as a pre-Roman tribal centre, but the view of most archaeologists is that the people who became known as the Silures were a loose network of groups with some shared cultural values, rather than a centralised society.
Earthworks adjoining the fort to the south-east have been interpreted as funerary enclosures, suggesting to some that the fort was used as an oppidum or small town by the Silures.

Caratacus

CaractacusCaradocCaradog
The Silures fiercely resisted Roman conquest about AD 48, with the assistance of Caratacus, a military leader and prince of the Catuvellauni, who had fled from further east after his own tribe was defeated. There is evidence of cultural continuity throughout the Roman period, from the Silures to the kingdom of Gwent in particular, as shown by leaders of Gwent using the name "Caradoc" in remembrance of the British hero Caratacus.
We next hear of Caratacus in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices of Wales against Plautius's successor as governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula.

Wales in the Roman era

Roman WalesWalesRoman
To aid the Roman administration in keeping down local opposition, a legionary fortress (Isca, later Caerleon) was planted in the midst of tribal territory.
It is the Roman campaigns of conquest that are most widely known, due to the spirited but unsuccessful defence of their homelands by two native tribes, the Silures and the Ordovices.

Legio II Augusta

Second LegionII ''AugustaII Augusta
Ostorius died with the Silures still unconquered and, after his death, they defeated the Second Legion.
Although it was recorded as suffering a defeat at the hands of the Silures in 52, the II Augusta proved to be one of the best legions, even after its disgrace during the uprising of queen Boudica, when its praefectus castrorum, who was then its acting commander (its legatus and tribunes probably being absent with the governor Suetonius Paulinus), contravened Suetonius' orders to join him and so later committed suicide.

Frontinus

Sextus Julius FrontinusJulius FrontinusSex. Julius Frontinus
It remains unclear whether the Silures were actually militarily defeated or simply agreed to come to terms, but Roman sources suggest rather opaquely that they were eventually subdued by Sextus Julius Frontinus in a series of campaigns ending about AD 78.
While governor of Britain, he subjugated the Silures of South Wales and is thought to have likewise campaigned against the Brigantes.

Venta Silurum

VentaCaerwent
The town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent, six miles west of Chepstow) was established in AD 75.
Venta was established by the Romans in around AD 75 as an administrative centre for the defeated Silures tribe in Roman Wales.

Isca Augusta

IscaCiv. Col. Leg. IIIsca Silurum
To aid the Roman administration in keeping down local opposition, a legionary fortress (Isca, later Caerleon) was planted in the midst of tribal territory.
The place is commonly referred to as Isca Silurum to differentiate it from Isca Dumnoniorum and because it lay in the territory of the Silures tribe.

Kingdom of Gwent

GwentkingdomNetherwent
Caerwent seems to have continued in use in the post-Roman period as a religious centre and the territory of the Silures later became the 5th century Welsh Kingdoms of Gwent, Brycheiniog and Gwynllŵg.
Along with its neighbour Glywyssing, it seems to have had a great deal of cultural continuity with the earlier Silures, keeping their own courts and diocese separate from the rest of Wales until their conquest by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.

Catuvellauni

Catuvellaunian
The Silures fiercely resisted Roman conquest about AD 48, with the assistance of Caratacus, a military leader and prince of the Catuvellauni, who had fled from further east after his own tribe was defeated.
We next hear of him in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices in what is now Wales against the Roman governor Publius Ostorius Scapula.

Deceangli

Ostorius first attacked the Deceangli in the north-east of what is now Wales, who appear to have surrendered with little resistance.
They appear to have surrendered with little resistance, unlike the Silures and the Ordovices who put up a long and bitter resistance to Roman rule.

Publius Ostorius Scapula

Ostorius ScapulaOstoriusIceni revolt against Publius Ostorius Scapula
The first attack on the Welsh tribes was by the legate Publius Ostorius Scapula about AD 48.
In the meantime, Caratacus, whose tribe, the Catuvellauni, had been defeated in the first phase of the conquest, had re-emerged as a leader of the Silures of south east Wales and Gloucestershire.

Silurian

Late SilurianSilurian PeriodUpper Silurian
The geological period Silurian was first described by Roderick Murchison in rocks located in the original lands of the Silures, hence the name.
He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick, who had named the period of his study the Cambrian, from the Latin name for Wales.

Wales

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿WelshWAL
That period postdates the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, whose names are also derived from ancient Wales.
By the time of the Roman invasion of Britain the area of modern Wales had been divided among the tribes of the Deceangli, Ordovices, Cornovii, Demetae and Silures for centuries.

Caradoc

Caradog FreichfrasLife of CaradocCaradog Strongarm
There is evidence of cultural continuity throughout the Roman period, from the Silures to the kingdom of Gwent in particular, as shown by leaders of Gwent using the name "Caradoc" in remembrance of the British hero Caratacus.
They interpret his name as a remembrance of the earlier hero Caratacus, implying a continuity of tradition from the pre-Roman culture of the Silures who occupied the same area in what is now south-east Wales, and which is also suggested by other material.

Henry Vaughan

VaughanVaughan''', Henry
The poet Henry Vaughan called himself a "Silurist", by virtue of his roots in South Wales.
Vaughan took his literary inspiration from his native environment and chose the descriptive name "Silurist", derived from his homage to the Silures, a Celtic tribe of pre-Roman south Wales that strongly resisted the Romans.

Ocelus

Ocelus Vellaunus
As was standard practice, as revealed by inscriptions, the Romans matched their deities with local Silurian ones, and the local deity Ocelus was identified with Mars, the Roman god of war.
So Ocelus seems to have been a British, perhaps Silurian god, associated with Mars, probably in the latter's Celtic capacity as a protector.

Tribe

tribaltribestribals
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.