Silver-oxide battery

silver-zinc batteriessilver-zinc batterysilver-zincsilver cell batteriessilver zinc batterySilver oxidesilver oxide batteriesSilver-oxidesilver-oxide batteriesbattery, Silver-oxide
A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy-to-weight ratio.wikipedia
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Button cell

coin cellLR44CR2032
Available either in small sizes as button cells, where the amount of silver used is minimal and not a significant contributor to the product cost, or in large custom-designed batteries, where the superior performance of the silver-oxide chemistry outweighs cost considerations.
Silver cells may have very stable output voltage until it suddenly drops very rapidly at end of life.

Primary cell

primary batteryprimaryprimary batteries
A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy-to-weight ratio.
Electrochemical depolarization exchanges the hydrogen for a metal, such as copper (e.g., Daniell cell), or silver (e.g., Silver-oxide cell).so called

Mark 37 torpedo

MK 37 torpedoMark 37Mark 37 ASW homing torpedo
These larger cells are mostly found in applications for the military, for example in Mark 37 torpedoes or on Alfa-class submarines.
The torpedoes used Mark 46 silver-zinc batteries.

Battery nomenclature

(IEC code: C)(IEC code: L)(IEC code: S)
A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy-to-weight ratio.

Silver(I,III) oxide

AgOsilver(II) oxide silver monoxide
During the charging process, silver is first oxidized to silver(I) oxide: 2 Ag(s) + 2 OH − → Ag 2 O + H 2 O + 2 e − and then to silver(II) oxide: Ag 2 O + 2 OH − → 2 AgO + H 2 O + 2 e −, while the zinc oxide is reduced to metallic zinc: 2 Zn(OH) 2 + 4 e − = 2 Zn + 4 OH − . The process is continued until the cell potential reaches a level where the decomposition of the electrolyte is possible at about 1.55 volts.
Silver(I,III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ag 4 O 4 . It is a component of silver oxide-zinc alkaline batteries.

Reserve battery

reserve batteries
In recent years they have become important as reserve batteries for manned and unmanned spacecraft.
Silver-zinc battery, often found in old missiles

Rechargeable battery

rechargeablerechargeable batteriesstorage batteries
A related rechargeable secondary battery usually called a silver–zinc battery uses a variation of silver-oxide chemistry.

Sputnik 1

SputniksatelliteEarth's first artificial satellite
Non-rechargeable silver–zinc batteries powered the first Soviet Sputnik satellites, as well as US Saturn launch vehicles, the Apollo Lunar Module, lunar rover and life-support backpack.
It consisted of three silver-zinc batteries, developed at the All-Union Research Institute of Current Sources (VNIIT) under the leadership of Nikolai S. Lidorenko.

Apollo command and service module

command modulecommand and service moduleCommand/Service Module
The primary power sources for the command module were the hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells in the service module.
Electric system batteries: three 40 ampere-hour silver-zinc batteries; two 0.75 ampere-hour silver-zinc pyrotechnic batteries

Mercury battery

mercury batteriesMercury cellMercuric oxide
Compared to other batteries, a silver-oxide battery has a higher open-circuit voltage than a mercury battery, and a flatter discharge curve than a standard alkaline battery.
Alternatives used are zinc-air batteries, with similar discharge curve, high capacity, but much shorter lifetime (a few months), and poor performance in dry climates; alkaline batteries with voltage widely varying through their lifetime; and silver-oxide batteries with higher voltage (1.55 V) and very flat discharge curve, which makes them possibly the best, though expensive, replacement after recalibrating the meter to the new voltage.

Apollo 13

13Apollo 13 accidentApollo 13 Splashdown
After the Apollo 13 near-disaster, an auxiliary silver–zinc battery was added to the service module as a backup to the fuel cells.
Unlike the command and service module (CSM), which was powered by fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries, so electrical power and water (used for equipment cooling as well as drinking) were critical consumables.

Apollo Lunar Module

lunar moduleLMlunar lander
Non-rechargeable silver–zinc batteries powered the first Soviet Sputnik satellites, as well as US Saturn launch vehicles, the Apollo Lunar Module, lunar rover and life-support backpack.
Batteries: two 28–32 volt, 296 ampere-hour silver-zinc batteries; 125 lb each

Battery recycling

recyclingrecyclerecycled
Battery recycling
Used most frequently in watches, toys, and some medical devices, silver oxide batteries contain a small amount of mercury.

List of battery sizes

AA batteries217002CR5
List of battery sizes
In the IEC designations, cell types with an "SR" prefix use silver oxide chemistry and provide 1.55 volts, while the "LR" prefix batteries use alkaline chemistry and provide 1.5 volts.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalChemical Sciences
Available either in small sizes as button cells, where the amount of silver used is minimal and not a significant contributor to the product cost, or in large custom-designed batteries, where the superior performance of the silver-oxide chemistry outweighs cost considerations.

Alfa-class submarine

Alfa classAlfaAlfa''-class submarine
These larger cells are mostly found in applications for the military, for example in Mark 37 torpedoes or on Alfa-class submarines.

Specific energy

Energy densityby massenergy (calorie) density
It shares most of the characteristics of the silver-oxide battery, and in addition, is able to deliver one of the highest specific energies of all presently known electrochemical power sources.

Laptop

laptop computerlaptopsnotebook computer
Long used in specialized applications, it is now being developed for more mainstream markets, for example, batteries in laptops and hearing aids.

Flexible electronics

flexibleflexible electronicflex
Silver–zinc batteries, in particular, are being developed to power flexible electronic applications, where the reactants are integrated directly into flexible substrates, such as polymers or paper, using printing or chemical deposition methods.

Silver oxide

silver(I) oxideAg 2 Osilver hydroxide
During the charging process, silver is first oxidized to silver(I) oxide: 2 Ag(s) + 2 OH − → Ag 2 O + H 2 O + 2 e − and then to silver(II) oxide: Ag 2 O + 2 OH − → 2 AgO + H 2 O + 2 e −, while the zinc oxide is reduced to metallic zinc: 2 Zn(OH) 2 + 4 e − = 2 Zn + 4 OH − . The process is continued until the cell potential reaches a level where the decomposition of the electrolyte is possible at about 1.55 volts. A silver-oxide battery uses silver(I) oxide as the positive electrode (cathode), zinc as the negative electrode (anode), plus an alkaline electrolyte, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
A silver-oxide battery uses silver(I) oxide as the positive electrode (cathode), zinc as the negative electrode (anode), plus an alkaline electrolyte, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Cathode

cathodiccopper cathode(cathode)
A silver-oxide battery uses silver(I) oxide as the positive electrode (cathode), zinc as the negative electrode (anode), plus an alkaline electrolyte, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
A silver-oxide battery uses silver(I) oxide as the positive electrode (cathode), zinc as the negative electrode (anode), plus an alkaline electrolyte, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).