Silver Spring monkeys

Silver SpringSilver Spring monkey controversydeafferentation
The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 wild-born macaque monkeys from the Philippines who were kept in the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.wikipedia
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People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

PETAPeople for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)Peta2
In May 1981, Alex Pacheco of the animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) began working undercover in the lab, and alerted police to what PETA viewed as unacceptable living conditions for the monkeys.
Founded in March 1980 by Ingrid Newkirk and fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco, the organization first caught the public's attention in the summer of 1981 during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, a widely publicized dispute about experiments conducted on 17 macaque monkeys inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Edward Taub

Taub
The monkeys had been used as research subjects by Edward Taub, a psychologist, who had cut afferent ganglia that supplied sensation to the brain from their arms, then used arm slings to restrain either the good or deafferented arm to train them to use the limbs they could not feel. Edward Taub (born 1931) is a behavioral neuroscientist currently based at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
He is best known for his involvement in the Silver Spring monkeys case and for making major breakthroughs in the area of neuroplasticity and discovering/developing constraint-induced movement therapy; a family of techniques which helps the rehabilitation of people who have developed learned non-use as a result of suffering neurological injuries from a stroke or other cause.

Alex Pacheco (activist)

Alex PachecoPacheco, Alex
In May 1981, Alex Pacheco of the animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) began working undercover in the lab, and alerted police to what PETA viewed as unacceptable living conditions for the monkeys.
Pacheco came to wider public attention in 1981 for his role, along with Ingrid Newkirk, in what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, a campaign to release 17 crab-eating macaques who were undergoing experiments in the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Animal Liberation Front

Animal Liberation Front Supporters GroupALFBand of Mercy
The ensuing battle over the monkeys' custody saw celebrities and politicians campaign for the monkeys' release, an amendment in 1985 to the Animal Welfare Act, the transformation of PETA from a group of friends into a national movement, the creation of the first North American Animal Liberation Front cell, and the first animal research case to reach the United States Supreme Court.
Kathy Snow Guillermo writes in Monkey Business that the first ALF action was the removal on September 22, 1981, of the Silver Spring monkeys, 17 lab monkeys in the legal custody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), after a researcher who had been experimenting on them was arrested for alleged violations of cruelty legislation.

Ingrid Newkirk

Newkirk, IngridIngrid E. Newkirk
He worked on the anti-whaling ship, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, joined the Hunt Saboteurs Association in England, and when he returned to the United States to study political science at George Washington, he teamed up with Ingrid Newkirk, a local poundmaster, to form People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals in March 1980.
They came to public attention in 1981, during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, when Pacheco photographed 17 macaque monkeys being experimented on inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Body schema

deafferentation
He took a job as a research assistant in a neurology lab to gain more understanding of the nervous system, and became involved in deafferentation experiments with monkeys.
The most direct of related disorders, deafferentation occurs when sensory input from the body is reduced or absent, without affecting efferent, or motor, neurons.

Constraint-induced movement therapy

modified constraint induced therapy
Known as constraint-induced movement therapy, it has helped stroke survivors regain the use of limbs paralysed for many years, and has been hailed by the American Stroke Association as being at the forefront of a revolution.

Learned non-use

Doidge writes that Taub had an epiphany, guessing that the reason the monkeys would not use their deafferented limbs was simply because they had learned not to, an idea he called "learned non-use."
*Silver Spring monkeys

Crab-eating macaque

long-tailed macaqueMacaca fascicularisMacaca irus
Inside the Institute for Behavioral Research, Taub was conducting deafferentation experiments on 16 male crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and one female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), each about 14 inches tall, all born wild in the Philippines.
One of the most well known examples of experiments on crab-eating macaques is the 1981 Silver Spring monkeys case.

Animal rights movement

animal rights activistanimal liberation movementanimal liberation
In 1981, Alex Pacheco exposed illicit research on Macaque monkeys in Edward Taub's laboratory in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Macaque

macaquesMacacamacaque monkey
The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 wild-born macaque monkeys from the Philippines who were kept in the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 wild-born macaque monkeys from the Philippines who were kept in the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Silver Spring, Maryland

Silver SpringSilver Spring, MDdowntown Silver Spring
The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 wild-born macaque monkeys from the Philippines who were kept in the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Neuroplasticity

plasticityneural plasticitybrain plasticity
Within the scientific community, the monkeys became known for their use in experiments into neuroplasticity—the ability of the adult primate brain to reorganize itself.

Peripheral neuropathy

neuropathyneuropathiesneuropathic
The monkeys had been used as research subjects by Edward Taub, a psychologist, who had cut afferent ganglia that supplied sensation to the brain from their arms, then used arm slings to restrain either the good or deafferented arm to train them to use the limbs they could not feel.

Cortical map

cortical remapping
During the subsequent dissection of the monkeys, it was discovered that significant cortical remapping had occurred, suggesting that being forced to use limbs with no sensory input had triggered changes in their brains' organization.

University of Alabama at Birmingham

UABUniversity of Alabama-BirminghamUniversity of Alabama, Birmingham
Edward Taub (born 1931) is a behavioral neuroscientist currently based at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
He became interested in behaviorism while studying philosophy at Columbia University, and went on to study under Fred Keller and Wiliam N. Schoenfeld, the experimental psychologists.

Fred S. Keller

Fred Keller
He became interested in behaviorism while studying philosophy at Columbia University, and went on to study under Fred Keller and Wiliam N. Schoenfeld, the experimental psychologists.

William N. Schoenfeld

Wiliam N. Schoenfeld
He became interested in behaviorism while studying philosophy at Columbia University, and went on to study under Fred Keller and Wiliam N. Schoenfeld, the experimental psychologists.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
He took a job as a research assistant in a neurology lab to gain more understanding of the nervous system, and became involved in deafferentation experiments with monkeys.

Afferent nerve fiber

afferentafferent fibersafferent nerve
An afferent nerve is a sensory nerve that conveys impulses from the skin and other sensory organs to the spine and the brain.

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
Deafferentation is a surgical procedure in which the spinal cord is opened up and the sensory nerves cut so that these impulses do not reach the brain.

New York University

NYUUniversity of the City of New YorkNew York
Taub continued working with deafferented monkeys at New York University, where he obtained his Ph.D. in 1970.

Basic research

basicbasic sciencefundamental research
Engaged in what he saw at first as pure research, he conducted several kinds of deafferentation experiments.