Simele massacre

AssyrianAssyrian Affaira massacreAssyrians in Simelebloody massacrebrutal massacre of Assyrianslaunches a campaignmassacre at Simeleslaughtersthe massacre
The Simele massacre was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933.wikipedia
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Kingdom of Iraq

IraqHashemite Kingdom of IraqIraqi
The Simele massacre was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933.
Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed.

Assyrian people

AssyrianAssyriansSyriac
The Simele massacre was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933.
Emigration was triggered by events such as the Massacres of Diyarbakır, the Assyrian Genocide (concurrent with the Armenian and Greek Genocides) during World War I by the Ottoman Empire and allied Kurdish tribes, the Simele Massacre in Iraq in 1933, the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Arab Nationalist Ba'athist policies in Iraq and Syria, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and its takeover of most of the Nineveh plains.

Bakr Sidqi

Bakr SedqiBekir SıtkıGeneral Bekir Sidqi Pasha
The Simele massacre was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933.
In August 1933, Sidqi ordered the Royal Iraqi Army to march to the north to crush so-called 'militant Assyrian separatists' in Simele, near Mosul, which led to 3,000 Assyrian civilians being killed in the region in the Simele massacre.

Raphael Lemkin

Rafael LemkinLemkinRafał Lemkin
The term 'genocide' was coined by Raphael Lemkin, who was directly influenced by the story of this massacre and the Armenian Genocide.
It was in Bialystok that Lemkin became interested in the concept of crime, later developing the concept of genocide, based on the Armenian experience at the hands of the Ottoman Turks, then later the experience of Assyrians massacred in Iraq during the 1933 Simele massacre.

Simele

SemelSimelSumel
The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele, but also the killing spree that took place among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts that led to the deaths of between 600 and 3,000 Assyrians.
The Assyrian people, who resided in Simele and its neighbouring area, were subjected to a massacre on August 7, 1933, implemented by the Iraqi government.

Iraq Levies

Assyrian LeviesAssyrian and Iraqi LeviesRAF Levies
Many of them were relocated to refugee camps by the British in Baquba and later to Habbaniyah, and in 1921 some were enlisted in the pro-British Assyrian Levies which helped quell Kurdish revolts in the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
"They had dug trenches and were determined on destroying the Assyrians and taking their properties and possessions. Assyrians painfully remembered the massacre of 1933 in Simele and the surrounding villages and pledged "Never Again!". They remembered the raping and pillaging of defenseless Assyrian villagers."

Assyrian genocide

AssyrianSeyfoAssyrians
During the Assyrian genocide during and after World War I, more than half of Turkey's Assyrian population was massacred under the Ottoman Empire.
However, they would again be targeted there in the 1933 Simele massacre.

Assyrian homeland

homelandAssyriaAssyrian
With Iraqi independence, the new Assyrian spiritual-temporal leader, Shimun XXI Eshai the Catholicos Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, demanded the Assyrians be given autonomy within Iraq, seeking support from the United Kingdom and pressing his case before the League of Nations in 1932.
Most of the Assyrians living in Syria today, in the Al Hasakah Governorate in villages along the Khabur river, descend from refugees that arrived there after the Assyrian Genocide and Simele massacre of the 1910s and 30s.

Ghazi of Iraq

GhaziKing GhaziGhazi I
The crown prince Ghazi himself came to the city to award 'victorious' colours to those military and tribal leaders who participated in the massacres and the looting.
Ghazi came to Simele to award 'victorious' colours to the military and tribal leaders who, on 11 August 1933, participated in the Simele massacre of Assyrians and the looting of their homes.

Assyrian independence movement

Assyrian war of independenceAssyrian struggle for independenceAssyrian independence
There have been many hindrances to the movement, including events such as the Assyrian genocide, Simele massacre, internal conflicts over naming disputes and Assyrian churches, portrayals in media, and Arabization, Kurdification, and Turkification policies.

1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts

Iraqi Shia RevoltsIraqi Shia revolts 1935–1936Shi'a
The administrative task of this forceful disciplining of the Shi'a tribes fell to General Bakr Sidqi – the same man responsible for the brutal massacre of Assyrians in 1933.

Upper Mesopotamia

Jaziraal-JaziraNorthern Mesopotamia
They concentrated in the Jazira region and built a number of villages on the banks of the Khabur River.
Thousands of Assyrian refugees entered into Syrian Al-Jazira, from Turkey following the Assyrian Genocide of World War I. Additionally, in 1933 a further 24,000 Assyrian Christians fled into the area, following the Simele Massacre in the Mosul region of northern Iraq.

Massacre

massacresmassacredmass execution
The Simele massacre was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq led by Bakr Sidqi during a campaign systematically targeting the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933.

Dohuk Governorate

DohukDahukDuhok Governorate
The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele, but also the killing spree that took place among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts that led to the deaths of between 600 and 3,000 Assyrians. The majority of the Assyrians affected by the massacres were adherents of the Church of the East (often dubbed Nestorian), who originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000.

Nineveh Governorate

NinevehNinawa GovernorateNinawa
The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele, but also the killing spree that took place among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts that led to the deaths of between 600 and 3,000 Assyrians.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
During the Assyrian genocide during and after World War I, more than half of Turkey's Assyrian population was massacred under the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
During the Assyrian genocide during and after World War I, more than half of Turkey's Assyrian population was massacred under the Ottoman Empire.

Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocides
The term 'genocide' was coined by Raphael Lemkin, who was directly influenced by the story of this massacre and the Armenian Genocide.

Armenian Genocide

ArmeniangenocideArmenians
The term 'genocide' was coined by Raphael Lemkin, who was directly influenced by the story of this massacre and the Armenian Genocide.

Church of the East

NestorianNestorian ChurchNestorians
The majority of the Assyrians affected by the massacres were adherents of the Church of the East (often dubbed Nestorian), who originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000.

Nestorianism

NestorianNestorian ChristianNestorians
The majority of the Assyrians affected by the massacres were adherents of the Church of the East (often dubbed Nestorian), who originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000.

Hakkari

JulamerkHakkari MountainsSanjak of Hakkari
The majority of the Assyrians affected by the massacres were adherents of the Church of the East (often dubbed Nestorian), who originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000.

Barwari

BerwariBarwarBarur
The majority of the Assyrians affected by the massacres were adherents of the Church of the East (often dubbed Nestorian), who originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000.