Sindh

Sindh ProvinceSindSindh, PakistanScindeal-SindSind ProvinceGateway of IslamSouthern PakistanDemographics of SindhSindh Sultanate
Sindh (سنڌ; undefined, ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, and the historical home of the Sindhi people.wikipedia
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Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)
Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab.
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.

Gujarat

Gujarat StateGujarat, IndiaGujrat
Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south.
Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south.
Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley.

Thar Desert

TharRajasthan Desertagriculture
Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.
More than 60% of the desert lies in the state of Rajasthan, and extends into Sindh, Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana.

Sindhis

SindhiSindhi peopleDharejo
Sindh (سنڌ; undefined, ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, and the historical home of the Sindhi people.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi) ) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan.

Culture of Sindh

Sindhi cultureculturecultural traditions
Sindh is known for its distinct culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus (Sindh has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents) and Muslims in the province.
Sindh has been shaped by the largely desert region, the natural resources it had available, and continuous foreign influence.

Port Qasim

Port Qasim AuthorityPort Bin QasimBin Qasim Port
Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port.
The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (undefined Bandar-gāh Muhammad bin Qāsim), also known as Port Qasim, is a deep-water seaport in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea under the administrative control of the Secretary to the Government of Pakistan for Maritime Affairs.

Kirthar Mountains

Kirthar RangeKirtharKirthar Hills
Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.
The rusk mountains are a mountain range located in the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Sindh.

Ror dynasty

RorRor KingdomRoruka
The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center.
The Ror dynasty was a South Asian power that ruled from modern-day Sindh and what is the northwest part of modern-day India from 450 BC.

Sufism in Sindh

Sufism
Sindh is known for its distinct culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus (Sindh has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents) and Muslims in the province.
Sufism in Sindh covers the tradition of Sufism in Sindh, which is reputed to be an area of mystics.

Kot Diji

Kot Diji TalukaKot-Diji
The primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji.
Located about 24 kilometers south of Khairpur in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, it is on the east bank of the Indus opposite Mohenjo-daro.

Indo-Scythians

Indo-ScythianIndo-Scythian KingdomScythian
Unable to take the Punjab region, they invaded South Asia through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps).
Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Saka and Scythian origin who migrated southward into western and northern South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.

Sauvira Kingdom

SauvirasSauviraSauvīra
The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center.
Its capital city was Roruka, identified with present-day Aror/Rohri in Sindh, mentioned in the Buddhist literature as a major trading center.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus Valley
This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC.
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.

Harappa

HarrappaHarrapaHarappan
It flourished between the 25th and 15th centuries BC in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilization centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture.

Rohri

RoriRohi Fast PassengerRoruka
The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center.
Rohri (Sindhi: روهڙي; undefined) is a town of Sukkur District, Sindh province, Pakistan.

Names for India

BharatBharatavarshaBharata
Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha.
The name derives ultimately from Sanskrit, which was the name of the Indus River as well as the country at the lower Indus basin (modern Sindh, in Pakistan).

Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabi
Unable to take the Punjab region, they invaded South Asia through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps).
It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

Indus River

IndusIndus ValleySindhu
Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.
Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through Ladakh towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh.

Economy of Sindh

second largest economy
Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, and hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks.
Much of Sindh's economy is influenced by the economy of Karachi, the capital of the province and also the largest city and economic capital of the country.

Rai dynasty

Rai KingdomRai SahasiRai Sahiras
Afterwards, Sindh came under the rule of Emperor Harshavardhan, then the Rai Dynasty around 478. Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty, a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach may have been a Buddhist.
524–632 CE) was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.

Mansura, Sindh

MansuraBrahmanabadMansura (Brahmanabad)
Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capital; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata al-Sindhi, Abu Raja Sindhi and Sind ibn Ali.
Mansura (المنصورة, al-manṣūrah), referred to as "Brahmnabad" in later centuries, was the historic capital of the Muslim Caliphate in Sindh, during the eighth century under the Umayyad Caliphate and then Abbasid Caliphate from the year 750 AD to 1006 AD.

Aror

AlorAl Roral-Rur
The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center.
Aror (Sindhi: اروهڙ) or Alor or Arorkot (Sindhi: اروهڙ ڪوٽ) is the medieval name of the city of Rohri (in Sindh, modern Pakistan).

Chach of Aror

Chach of AlorChachSindh kingdom
Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty, a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach may have been a Buddhist.
631-711 CE) was a Brahmin who reigned as king of Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent in the mid-7th century CE.

Multan

MooltanMultan, PakistanMultan City
The Brahman dynasty ruled a vast territory that stretched from Multan in the north to the Rann of Kutch, Alor was their capital.
After his conquest of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE captured Multan from the local ruler Chach of Alor following a two-month siege.