Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

- Singapore

500 related topics


Tamil language

Classical Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of South Asia.

Findings from Adichanallur in the Government Museum, Chennai
Keezhadi excavation site
Explanation for Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Tamil Brahmi script in the reverse side of the bilingual silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. AD 160) of Deccan. Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol, crescented six-arch chaitya hill and river with Tamil Brahmi script  Obv: Bust of king; Prakrit legend in the Brahmi script
Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Middle Tamil inscriptions in Vatteluttu script in stone during Chola period c.1000 AD at Brahadeeswara temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
An 18th-century Nayaka era sculpture depicting the wedding of Goddess Meenakshi
Jambai Tamil Brahmi inscription near Tirukkoyilur in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu dated to the early Tamil Sangam age (c. 400 BC)
Historical evolution of Tamil writing from the earlier Tamil Brahmi near the top to the current Tamil script at bottom
Thirukkural palm leaf manuscript

Tamil is an official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the sovereign nations of Sri Lanka and Singapore, and the Union Territory of Puducherry.

Sovereign state

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019

Absolute sovereign immunity is no longer as widely accepted as it has been in the past, and some countries, including the United States, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Pakistan and South Africa, have introduced restrictive immunity by statute, which explicitly limits jurisdictional immunity to public acts, but not private or commercial ones, though there is no precise definition by which public acts can easily be distinguished from private ones.

Straits Settlements

The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.

Malaya in 1922:
The Port of Penang in George Town during the 1910s
Malaya in 1922:
Malacca, 1860–1900
Penang from Tie Sin's Tower, 1860–1900
Evolution of Malaysia
Malacca business street, 1912
Silver coin: 1 Straits dollar, 1903

The Straits Settlements originally consisted of the four individual settlements of Penang, Singapore, Malacca, and Dinding.

Singapore Island

The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. West Sahara).

Singapore Island, or Mainland Singapore, is the main constituent island of the sovereign island country and city-state of the Republic of Singapore.

Strait of Malacca

Narrow stretch of water, 930 km in length, between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

The Strait of Malacca connects the Pacific Ocean to the east with the Indian Ocean to the west
The Strait of Malacca as viewed from the city of Malacca, Malaysia. Pulau Besar ('Big Island') is visible in the distance.
A ship sailing on the Strait of Malacca, as seen from Bukit Melawati in Kuala Selangor.
Yearly haze from the smoke of raging bush fires, limiting visibility.
Gulf of Mannar
Cocos Strait, Duncan Passage and other Indian channels
Cocos Strait is at the northern end of Andaman Islands in red square
Ten Degree Channel
Ten Degree Channel, closeup
Singapore Strait
Sunda Strait
Lombok Strait
South China Sea, Malacca Strait, Gulf of Thailand, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea

The importance of the Strait of Malacca in global trade networks continued well into later centuries with the rise of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century, the Johor Sultanate, and the modern city-state of Singapore.

Japanese occupation of Singapore

The name for Singapore when it was occupied and ruled by the Empire of Japan, following the fall and surrender of British military forces on 15 February 1942 during World War II.

Singapore in 1945
Britain surrenders Singapore to the Japanese. Lieutenant-General Yamashita (seated, third from the left) faces Lt. Gen. Percival (sitting second from the right, back to camera)
A ten-dollar "Banana Money" note issued during the war
Ivan Lyon (centre) celebrating with two other members of Z Force following the success of Operation Jaywick
The Japanese delegation leaves the Municipal Building after the surrender ceremony on 12 September 1945
A cheering crowd welcomes the return of British forces on 5 September 1945
The 5th Indian Division pass through the streets shortly after landing as part of the reoccupation force.
The Civilian War Memorial in the War Memorial Park at Beach Road. The four columns are a symbolic representation of the four major races of Singapore, namely the Chinese, Malays, Indians, and Eurasians.
The Sook Ching Centre Monument at Hong Lim Complex in Chinatown

The occupation was to become a major turning point in the histories of several nations, including those of Japan, Britain, and Singapore.


Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya

Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

Pedra Branca, Singapore

The approximate location of Pedra Branca in the South China Sea in relation to the countries surrounding it
A replica of Long Ya Men at the Labrador Nature Reserve, put up in 2005 as part of the Singapore Zheng He's 600th Anniversary Celebrations
Detail of a 1620 "Map of Sumatra" by Hessel Gerritz, a cartographer with the Hydrographic Service of the Dutch East India Company. The location of the island of "Pedrablanca" (Pedra Branca) is marked
Thomas and William Daniell's etching of Pedra Branca before the building of Horsburgh Lighthouse, c. 1820
Horsburgh Lighthouse, a painting by John Turnbull Thomson (1821–1884) showing the island of Pedra Branca just after the completion of the lighthouse in 1851, which he designed.
A sketch by Thomson showing Chinese stonecutters from the "Kay tribe" (that is, of Hakka origin) at work in a quarry on Pulau Ubin, an island off the northeast coast of Singapore, which supplied granite for the lighthouse on Pedra Branca.
The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, the seat of the International Court of Justice

Pedra Branca is an outlying island and the easternmost point of Singapore.

Colony of Singapore

British Crown colony for a total of 140 years, interrupted by Japanese invasion during World War II.

Singapore in 1945

The Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II and Singapore was returned to British rule in 1945.

Singapore English

An overview of differences in spelling across English dialects.

Singapore English (SgE, SE, en-SG) (similar and related to British English) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Singapore.