Single-board computerwikipedia
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
single-board computersingle-board computersSBCsingle-boardsingle-board microcomputerslot card based single board computerssingle board computerssimilar systemsSoC-based

Computer-on-module

computer-on-moduleComputer-on-Modules
A computer-on-module is a type of single-board computer made to plug into a carrier board, baseboard, or backplane for system expansion.
A computer-on-module (COM) is a type of single-board computer (SBC), a subtype of an embedded computer system.

KIM-1

Commodore KIM-1MOS Technology KIM-1KIM
Other typical early single board computers like the KIM-1 were often shipped without enclosure, which had to be added by the owner.
The KIM-1, short for Keyboard Input Monitor, is a small 6502-based single-board computer developed and produced by MOS Technology, Inc. and launched in 1976.

Nascom (computer kit)

NASCOM 1Nascom 1 and Nascom 2Nascom
Other examples are the Ferguson Big Board and the Nascom.
The Nascom 1 and 2 were single-board computer kits issued in the United Kingdom in 1977 and 1979, respectively, based on the Zilog Z80 and including a keyboard and video interface, a serial port that could be used to store data on a tape cassette using the Kansas City standard, and two 8-bit parallel ports.

Comparison of single-board computers

single-boardsingle-board computerPhidgetSBC3
Comparison of single-board computers excluding single-board microcontrollers.

Expansion card

expansion cardexpansion slotdaughterboard
Unlike a desktop personal computer, single board computers often do not rely on expansion slots for peripheral functions or expansion. The main components were assembled on a motherboard, and peripheral components such as serial ports, disk drive controllers, and graphics processors were located on daughterboards.
Some single-board computers made no provision for expansion cards, and may only have provided IC sockets on the board for limited changes or customization.

PICMG

PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers GroupPCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG)PCI Industrial Computers Manufacturers Group (PICMG)
Some of these types are CompactPCI, PXI, VMEbus, VXI, and PICMG.
Where X was used denoted differing form factors (“1” for slot card based single board computers, “2” for CompactPCI and “3” for AdvancedTCA) while YY was used to indicate incremental changes, option definitions or slight variation of a specification form its core specification.

EPIC (form factor)

EPICEPIC - PCI/ISA
Examples of stacking SBC form factors include PC/104, PC/104-Plus, PCI-104, EPIC, and EBX; these systems are commonly available for use in embedded control systems.
Embedded Platform for Industrial Computing (EPIC) is a computer form factor, a standard for an industrial-quality SBC

Intel 8080

80808080AIntel 8080-based hardware
The first true single-board computer (see the May 1976 issue of Radio-Electronics) called the "dyna-micro" was based on the Intel C8080A, and also used Intel's first EPROM, the C1702A.
The first single-board microcomputers, such as MYCRO-1 and the dyna-micro were based on the Intel 8080.

Single-board microcontroller

single-board microcontrollersingle-board micro controller
A single-board microcontroller differs from a single-board computer in that it lacks the general-purpose user interface and mass storage interfaces that a more general-purpose computer would have.

VMEbus

VMEVME64VME-based
Some of these types are CompactPCI, PXI, VMEbus, VXI, and PICMG.

Motherboard

motherboardmainboardmotherboards
The main components were assembled on a motherboard, and peripheral components such as serial ports, disk drive controllers, and graphics processors were located on daughterboards.

Raspberry Pi

Raspberry PiRaspbianRaspberry Pi 2
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.

CHIP (computer)

CHIP computerCHIPNext Thing Co.
CHIP (stylized as C.H.I.P.) is a single-board computer crowdfunded by now-defunct Next Thing Co. (NTC), released as open-source hardware running open-source software.

ODROID

OdroidODROID-XUHardkernel ODROID-XU3 & ODROID-XU4
The ODROID is a series of single-board computers and tablet computers created by Hardkernel Co., Ltd., an open-source hardware company located in South Korea.

Cubieboard

Cubieboard 8cubieboard 2
Cubieboard is a single-board computer, made in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

PandaBoard

Pandaboard ES
The PandaBoard is a low-power, low-cost single-board computer development platform based on the Texas Instruments OMAP4430 system on a chip (SoC).

BeagleBoard

BeagleBoardBeagleBone BlackBeagleBoard-X15
The BeagleBoard is a low-power open-source single-board computer produced by Texas Instruments in association with Digi-Key and Newark element14.

Bus Pirate

The Bus Pirate
The Bus Pirate is a small single-board computer designed for programming, debugging, and analyzing microcontrollers.

IGEPv2

The IGEPv2 board is a low-power, fanless single-board computer based on the OMAP 3 series (also known as Cortex-A8) of ARM-compatible processors.

Cotton Candy (single-board computer)

Cotton Candy
The Cotton Candy is a very small, fanless single-board computer on a stick, putting the full functions of a personal computer on a device the size of a USB memory stick, manufactured by the Norwegian-based hardware and software for-profit startup company FXI Technologies (also referred to as just "FXI Tech").

Pine64

Pine A64/A64+pine64
Pine64 is a family of single-board computers and the name of the company that produces them.

Arndale Board

The Arndale Board is a high-power single-board computer featuring the ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore developed in South Korea.

C-One

The C-One is a single-board computer (SBC) created in 2002 as an enhanced version of the Commodore 64, a home computer popular in the 1980s.

Libre Computer Project

The Libre Computer Project is an effort initiated by Shenzhen Libre Technology Co., Ltd., with the goal of producing low-cost single-board computers (SBC).