Single-member district

single-member districtssingle-member constituenciessingle-memberSingle Member Constituencysingle-member constituencysingle-member electoratessingle-member seatssingle-seatdistrict systemsingle member
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.wikipedia
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Electoral district

constituencyconstituenciesdistrict magnitude
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen.

Plurality voting

majority votefirst past the postsingle-member
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).
In a system based on single-member districts, it may be called first-past-the-post (FPTP), single-choice voting, simple plurality or relative/simple majority.

Schulze method

SchulzeCloneproof Schwartz Sequential Droppingmodified minimax
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).
The Schulze method is an electoral system developed in 1997 by Markus Schulze that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences.

Minimax Condorcet method

MinimaxMinimax Condorcetminimax method
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).
In voting systems, the minimax method is one of several Condorcet methods used for tabulating votes and determining a winner when using ranked voting in a single-winner election.

Group representation constituency

Group Representation ConstituenciesGRCGroup Representative Constituency
In some other countries like Singapore, members of parliament can be elected from both single-member districts as well as multi-member districts.
There are two types of electoral division or constituency in Singapore: the single member constituency (SMC) and the group representation constituency (GRC).

Duverger's law

tendencytwo party system which first past the post rewards
Called Duverger's law, this principle has also been empirically supported by the cube rule, which shows how the winning party in a first-past-the-post system is mathematically over-represented in the final chamber of representatives.
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
In some countries, such as Australia and India, members of the lower house of parliament are elected from single-member districts; and members of the upper house are elected from multi-member districts.

First-past-the-post voting

first past the postfirst-past-the-postFPTP
Called Duverger's law, this principle has also been empirically supported by the cube rule, which shows how the winning party in a first-past-the-post system is mathematically over-represented in the final chamber of representatives.
FPTP is a common, but not universal, feature of electoral systems with single-member electoral divisions, and is practised in close to one third of countries.

Two-party system

two party systemmajority partytwo major parties
It has been argued that single-member districts tend to promote two-party systems (with some regional parties).
In contrast, a voting system that allows only a single winner for each possible legislative seat is sometimes termed a plurality voting system or single-winner voting system and is usually described under the heading of a winner-takes-all arrangement.

Legislature

legislativeLegislative powerlegislative branch
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.

Electoral system

multi-membervoting systemvoting systems
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Two-round system

runoff electionrunoffrun-off
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Instant-runoff voting

alternative votepreferential votinginstant run-off voting
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Approval voting

ApprovalBlock approval votingAppr­oval
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Score voting

range votingscoreCenter for Range Voting
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Borda count

BordaBorda methodDowdall system
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Condorcet method

Condorcet votingCondorcet methodsCondorcet
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Ranked pairs

Maximum majority voting
A number of electoral systems use single-member districts, including plurality voting (first past the post), two-round systems, instant-runoff voting (IRV), approval voting, range voting, Borda count, and Condorcet methods (such as the Minimax Condorcet, Schulze method, and Ranked Pairs).

Australia

AUSAustralianCommonwealth of Australia
In some countries, such as Australia and India, members of the lower house of parliament are elected from single-member districts; and members of the upper house are elected from multi-member districts.

Singapore

Republic of SingaporeSingapore CitySingaporean
In some other countries like Singapore, members of parliament can be elected from both single-member districts as well as multi-member districts.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
For example, voters in Canada re-elected the Alberta government in 1989 but, because of dissatisfaction with its leadership, the premier and leader of the governing party, Don Getty, lost his seat.

Don Getty

Donald GettyDonald R. GettyDonald Ross Getty
For example, voters in Canada re-elected the Alberta government in 1989 but, because of dissatisfaction with its leadership, the premier and leader of the governing party, Don Getty, lost his seat.

Cube rule

Called Duverger's law, this principle has also been empirically supported by the cube rule, which shows how the winning party in a first-past-the-post system is mathematically over-represented in the final chamber of representatives.

Hung parliament

hung assemblyHungpolitical deadlock
Critics of two-party systems believe that two-party systems offer less choice to voters, create an exaggerated emphasis on issues that dominate more marginal seats, and does not completely remove the possibility of a balanced chamber (or hung parliament), which can also give undue power to independents and lead to even greater instability.