Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule IUN conventions19611961 Convention - Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic DrugsArticle 26Article 41scheduledscheduled drug
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.wikipedia
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Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs

Paris Convention
As noted below, its major effects included updating the [[Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs|Paris Convention]] of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones.
Both the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances have schedules of controlled substances.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVSchedule IUnited Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances
This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, MDMA, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]], which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects.

United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

19881988 UN Convention on Narcotics1988 UN Drug Convention
This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, MDMA, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]], which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses.
It provides additional legal mechanisms for enforcing the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine.
Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II, such as the International Opium Convention, and International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs (1925) specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine and opium, and its derivatives.
Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.

United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs

United Nations Narcotics Commission
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the World Health Organization were empowered to add, remove, and transfer drugs among the treaty's four schedules of controlled substances. A 1962 issue of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs' Bulletin on Narcotics proudly announced that "after a definite transitional period, all non-medical use of narcotic drugs, such as opium smoking, opium eating, consumption of cannabis (hashish, marijuana) and chewing of coca leaves, will be outlawed everywhere. This is a goal which workers in international narcotics control all over the world have striven to achieve for half a century."
The Commission has important functions under the drug control treaties in force today; most notably, it can amend the Schedules of controlled substances under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IIschedule III
In particular, the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and the United Kingdom's Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 were designed to fulfill treaty obligations.
The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

Misuse of Drugs ActThe Misuse of Drugs Act 1971Class A drug
In particular, the United States' Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and the United Kingdom's Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 were designed to fulfill treaty obligations.
It represents action in line with treaty commitments under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]].

Treaty

treatiesinternational treatiesinternational treaty
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
For example, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs provides that the treaty will terminate if, as a result of denunciations, the number of parties falls below 40. Many treaties expressly forbid withdrawal.

Narcotic

narcoticsdrugsdrug
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
The Single Convention codified all existing multilateral treaties on drug control and extended the existing control systems to include the cultivation of plants that were grown as the raw material of narcotic drugs.

Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

The conference met at the United Nations Office at Geneva from 6 to 24 March 1972, producing the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
The 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was a protocol that made several changes to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Dextromoramide

Palfium
From 1931 to 1961, most of the families of synthetic opioids had been developed, including drugs related to methadone, pethidine (meperidine/Demerol), morphinans and dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin, marketed solely in the Netherlands).
The development of the moramides and the coming to fruition of work on piritramide were two of the events that precipitated the 1961 update to the Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs, as cited by Dr Shulgin in Controlled Substances and various monographs.

International Narcotics Control Board

INCBPermanent Central Opium BoardUN International Narcotics Control Board
The International Narcotics Control Board was put in charge of administering controls on drug production, international trade, and dispensation.
The functions of both bodies were merged into the Board by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Psilocybin

psilocybine4-PO-DMT (Psilocybin)psilo-
Since cannabis is a hallucinogen (although some dispute this), the Commentary speculates that mescaline, psilocybin, tetrahydrocannabinol, and LSD could have been considered sufficiently cannabis-like to be regulated under the Single Convention; however, it opines, "It appears that the fact that the potent hallucinogenics whose abuse has spread in recent years have not been brought under international narcotics control does not result from legal reasons, but rather from the view of Governments that a regime different from that offered by the Single Convention would be more adequate."
Possession of psilocybin-containing mushrooms has been outlawed in most countries, and it has been classified as a scheduled drug by many national drug laws.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. Organic states group: As producers of the organic raw materials for most of the global drug supply, these countries had been the traditional focus of international drug control efforts. They were open to socio-cultural drug use, having lived with it for centuries. While India, Turkey, Pakistan and Burma took the lead, the group also included the coca-producing states of Indonesia and the Andean region of South America, the opium- and cannabis-producing countries of South and Southeast Asia, and the cannabis-producing states in the Horn of Africa. They favored weak controls because existing restrictions on production and export had directly affected large segments of their domestic population and industry. They supported national control efforts based on local conditions and were wary of strong international control bodies under the UN. Although essentially powerless to fight the prohibition philosophy directly, they effectively forced a compromise by working together to dilute the treaty language with exceptions, loopholes and deferrals. They also sought development aid to compensate for losses caused by strict controls. The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II, such as the International Opium Convention, and International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs (1925) specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine and opium, and its derivatives.
This role was later taken up by the International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations under Article 23 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and subsequently under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Cannabis

marijuanahemppot
. . The parallel existence of the Single Convention and the 1971 Convention have led to certain illogical effects such as the fact that a plant (cannabis) containing at most 3% of a principal element is dealt with more severely than the pure substance at 100% (tetrahydrocannabinol or THC).
To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent.

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
Organic states group: As producers of the organic raw materials for most of the global drug supply, these countries had been the traditional focus of international drug control efforts. They were open to socio-cultural drug use, having lived with it for centuries. While India, Turkey, Pakistan and Burma took the lead, the group also included the coca-producing states of Indonesia and the Andean region of South America, the opium- and cannabis-producing countries of South and Southeast Asia, and the cannabis-producing states in the Horn of Africa. They favored weak controls because existing restrictions on production and export had directly affected large segments of their domestic population and industry. They supported national control efforts based on local conditions and were wary of strong international control bodies under the UN. Although essentially powerless to fight the prohibition philosophy directly, they effectively forced a compromise by working together to dilute the treaty language with exceptions, loopholes and deferrals. They also sought development aid to compensate for losses caused by strict controls.
Major milestones in this campaign include the introduction of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]] in 1988.

Adolf Lande

The legal commentary was created by the United Nations Secretary-General's staff (specifically, Adolf Lande, former Secretary of the Permanent Central Narcotics Board and Drug Supervisory Body), operating under a mandate to give "an interpretation of the provisions of the Convention in the light of the relevant conference proceedings and other material."
) served for many years as secretary of the Permanent Central Narcotics Board and the Drug Supervisory Body (two international drug organs) and was the primary drafter of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Bulletin on Narcotics

A 1962 issue of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs' Bulletin on Narcotics proudly announced that "after a definite transitional period, all non-medical use of narcotic drugs, such as opium smoking, opium eating, consumption of cannabis (hashish, marijuana) and chewing of coca leaves, will be outlawed everywhere. This is a goal which workers in international narcotics control all over the world have striven to achieve for half a century."
The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

United Nations General Assembly

General AssemblyUN General AssemblyGeneral Assembly of the United Nations
The United Nations General Assembly can approve or modify any CND decision, except for scheduling decisions.
A special session was held in 2016 to discuss the War on Drugs and proposals to reconsider international drug treaties like the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as well as how to deal with drug treatment, rehabilitation, and related matters.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine.
Internationally (UN), morphine is a Schedule I drug under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Poppy straw

poppy straw concentratepoppy-strawstraw
concentrate of poppy straw — the material arising when poppy straw (all parts of the opium poppy except the seeds, after mowing) has entered into a process for the concentration of its alkaloids when such material is made available in trade
The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs defines poppy straw as "all parts (except the seeds) of the opium poppy, after mowing".

International Opium Convention

Geneva Opium ConventionsHague ConventionInternational Opium Conference
The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II, such as the International Opium Convention, and International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs (1925) specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine and opium, and its derivatives.
The Convention was superseded by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act

Cannabis legalizationcannabis rescheduling in the United Stateslegalization
See Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, cannabis and cannabis resin are classified under Schedule IV, that treaty's most strictly controlled category of drugs.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

UNODCUN Office on Drugs and CrimeUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was delegated the Board's day-to-day work of monitoring the situation in each country and working with national authorities to ensure compliance with the Single Convention.
These are: The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol ; the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]] of 1988.