Sino-Indian War

Sino-Indian War of 19621962 Sino-Indian WarIndo-China war1962 warIndia-China WarIndo-China War of 19621962 India-China Warbrief war19621962 Indo-China War
The Sino-Indian War, also known as the Indo-China War and Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.wikipedia
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Events leading to the Sino-Indian War

Forward Policygrowing tensions between China and Indialed
India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.
A long series of events triggered the Sino-Indian War in 1962.

Ladakh

LaddakhLadakhiLadakh Division
Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225 kilometre- (2,000 mile-) long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962.
The eastern end of Ladakh, consisting of the uninhabited Aksai Chin plains, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

Arunachal Pradesh

ArunachalAka HillsArunachal Pradesh, India
The eastern border, between Burma and Bhutan, comprises the present Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh (formerly the North East Frontier Agency).
During the 1962 Sino-Indian war, Chinese forces temporarily crossed the McMahon line.

Line of Actual Control

India-China borderLACSino-Indian border
India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.
The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, formed after the 1962 war.

Aksai Chin

AksaiKashmir administered by ChinaLadakh plateau
At its western end is the Aksai Chin region, an area the size of Switzerland, that sits between the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and Tibet (which China declared as an autonomous region in 1965).
In 1962, China and India fought a brief war in Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996, the two countries signed agreements to respect the Line of Actual Control.

McMahon Line

borderborder with TibetChina
India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959. Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225 kilometre- (2,000 mile-) long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962.
Chinese forces briefly occupied this area during the Sino-Indian War of 1962.

Tawang

Tawang TownBhalukpong-Tawang railway Bhalukpong-Tawang railway
Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang La in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre.
During the Sino-Indian war of 1962, Tawang fell briefly under Chinese control, but China voluntarily withdrew its troops at the end of the war.

Sikkim

Sikkim, IndiaSikhimSikkim State
China and India shared a long border, sectioned into three stretches by Nepal, Sikkim (then an Indian protectorate), and Bhutan, which follows the Himalayas between Burma and what was then West Pakistan.
The pass, which had previously been closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road.

Rezang La

Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang La in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre.
Rezang La was the site of the last stand of the 13 Kumaon, during the Sino-Indian War in 1962.

Jawaharlal Nehru

NehruPandit Jawaharlal NehruJawahar Lal Nehru
On 1 July 1954, India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru definitively stated the Indian position, claiming that Aksai Chin had been part of the Indian Ladakh region for centuries, and that the border (as defined by the Johnson Line) was non-negotiable.
He remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.

Neville Maxwell

According to Neville Maxwell, the British had used as many as 11 different boundary lines in the region, as their claims shifted with the political situation.
Neville Maxwell (born 1926 in London) is a retired British journalist and scholar who authored the 1970 book India's China War, which is considered an authoritative analysis of the 1962 Sino-Indian War.

Chushul

Chushul ALGChushul Valley
Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang La in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre.
Chushul has an Advanced Landing Ground airstrip that was used in the Sino-Indian War.

Tibet

TibetanGreater TibetThibet
At its western end is the Aksai Chin region, an area the size of Switzerland, that sits between the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and Tibet (which China declared as an autonomous region in 1965).
In 1962 China and India fought a brief war over the disputed Arunachal Pradesh/South Tibet and Aksai Chin regions.

Mountain warfare

mountain infantryMountain Combatmountain
Much of the battle took place in harsh mountain conditions, entailing large-scale combat at altitudes of over 4,000 metres (14,000 feet).
During the Sino-Indian War of 1962, hostilities broke out between India and China in the same area.

John Dalvi

Brigadier Dalvi
Some Indian troops, including Brigadier Dalvi who commanded the forces at Thag La, were also concerned that the territory they were fighting for was not strictly territory that "we should have been convinced was ours".
During the Sino-Indian War of 1962, he was the commander of the Indian 7th Brigade, which was destroyed, leading Dalvi to be captured by the People's Liberation Army on 22 October 1962.

Pangong Tso

Pangong LakePanggong LakeBangong Lake
The British boundary commissioners fixed the southern end of the boundary at Pangong Lake, but regarded the area north of it till the Karakoram Pass as terra incognita.
On 20 October 1962, Pangong Tso saw military action during the Sino-Indian War, successful for the Communist People's Liberation Army.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
The 1940s saw huge change with the Partition of India in 1947 (resulting in the establishment of the two new states of India and Pakistan), and the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) after the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
Pakistan was one of the first countries to establish formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India in 1962, forming a special relationship.

Kashmir

Pakistan administered KashmirKashmir regionPakistan-administered Kashmir
Aksai Chin, claimed by India to belong to Kashmir and by China to be part of Xinjiang, contains an important road link that connects the Chinese regions of Tibet and Xinjiang.
India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962.

Special Frontier Force

Establishment 22Tibetan Armed Force
The Nehru administration ordered the raising of an elite Indian-trained "Tibetan Armed Force" composed of Tibetan refugees.
Its main goal originally was to conduct covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of another Sino-Indian War.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
The 1940s saw huge change with the Partition of India in 1947 (resulting in the establishment of the two new states of India and Pakistan), and the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) after the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
After initially cordial relations with neighbouring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated.

Shaitan Singh

Major Shaitan Singh BhatiMajor Shaitan Singh
The battles also saw the death of Major Shaitan Singh of the Kumaon Regiment, who had been instrumental in the first battle of Rezang La. The Indian troops were forced to withdraw to high mountain positions.
During the 1962 Sino-Indian War, 13th Battalion of Kumaon Regiment was stationed in the Chushul sector.

Galwan River

GalwanGalwan Valleystandoff in the Galwan valley
In the east, it was more complicated because the Chip Chap River, Galwan River and the Chang Chenmo River flow into the Indus whereas the Karakash River flows into the Tarim basin.
By the time the Sino-Indian War started on the 20 October 1962, the Indian post had been reinforced by a company of troops.

Simla Accord (1914)

Simla ConventionSimla Accord1914 Simla Accord
Months after the Simla agreement, China set up boundary markers south of the McMahon Line.
China and India fought the Sino-Indian War in 1962, which nevertheless preserved the status quo ante bellum.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

1965second warIndo-Pakistan War of 1965
India's military failure against China would embolden Pakistan to initiate the Second Kashmir War with India.
After its success in the Rann of Kutch, Pakistan, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962 in the Sino-Indian War.

Henderson Brooks–Bhagat Report

Henderson Brooks-Bhagat ReportHenderson-Brooks & Bhagat committee
As a result of the war, the Indian government commissioned an investigation, resulting in the classified Henderson Brooks–Bhagat Report on the causes of the war and the reasons for failure.
The Henderson Brooks-Bhagat report is the report of an analysis (referred to in the report as an "Operations Review") of the events leading up to the Sino-Indian War of 1962.