Sino-Japanese vocabulary

Sino-JapanesekangoSino-Japanese wordSino-Japanese wordsSino-Japanese readingChinese loanwordsborrowed Chinese vocabularyChinese wordsEarly Middle Chinese–influencedJapanese
Sino-Japanese vocabulary or kango refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.wikipedia
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Kanbun

Kanbun KundokuClassical Chinesekambun
Kango, the use of Chinese-derived words in Japanese, is to be distinguished from kanbun, which is actual Chinese written by Japanese in Japan. The earliest written language to be used in Japan was literary Chinese, which has come to be called kanbun in this context.
As a result, Sino-Japanese vocabulary makes up a large portion of the Japanese lexicon, and much classical Chinese literature is accessible to Japanese readers in some semblance of the original.

Gairaigo

loanwordforeign loan wordsloanwords
The others are native Japanese vocabulary (yamato kotoba) and borrowings from other, mainly Western languages (gairaigo). It is estimated that approximately 60% of the words contained in a modern Japanese dictionary are kango, but they comprise only about 18% of words used in speech.
Japanese has a large number of loan words from Chinese, accounting for a sizeable fraction of the language.

Wasei-kango

terms that were reborrowedwasei kango
Such words invented in Japanese, often with novel meanings, are called wasei-kango.
While many words belong to the shared Sino-Japanese vocabulary, some kango do not exist in Chinese while others have a substantially different meaning from Chinese; however some words have been borrowed back to Chinese.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
Sino-Japanese vocabulary or kango refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.
For example, in Japan, Sino-Japanese words account for about 35% of the words in entertainment magazines, over half the words in newspapers, and 60% of the words in science magazines.

Japanese phonology

Japanesephonological reasonslong vowel
Chinese borrowings also significantly impacted Japanese phonology, leading to many new developments such as closed syllables (CVC, not just CV) and length becoming a phonetic feature with the development of both long vowels and long consonants.
Voiceless stops are slightly aspirated: less aspirated than English stops, but more so than Spanish., a remnant of Old Japanese, now occurs only medially in Sino-Japanese compounds, only medially in a few fossil words as a result of the contractions of pronunciations over time (such as 河童 kappa), as well as in onomatopoeia; as gairaigo, loanwords of non-Middle Chinese origin, enter the language, is increasingly used in transcription. are laminal denti-alveolar (that is, the blade of the tongue contacts the back of the upper teeth and the front part of the alveolar ridge) and are laminal alveolar. is the semivocalic equivalent of,, with little to no rounding.

Ninja

shinobininjasninjutsu
Examples include henji (返事 meaning 'reply', from native 返り事 kaerigoto 'reply'), rippuku (立腹 'become angry', based on 腹が立つ hara ga tatsu, literally 'belly/abdomen stands up'), shukka (出火 'fire starts or breaks out', based on 火が出る hi ga deru), and ninja (忍者 from 忍びの者 shinobi-no-mono meaning 'person of stealth').
Ninja is an on'yomi (Early Middle Chinese–influenced) reading of the two kanji "忍者".

Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary

Sino-VietnameseVietnameseVietnamese pronunciation
Many of these words have also been borrowed into Korean and Vietnamese, forming (a modern Japanese) part of their Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese vocabularies.
Together with Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese vocabularies, Sino-Vietnamese has been used in the reconstruction of the sound categories of Middle Chinese.

Sino-Korean vocabulary

Sino-KoreanSino-Korean wordSino-Korean words
Many of these words have also been borrowed into Korean and Vietnamese, forming (a modern Japanese) part of their Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese vocabularies.
Sino-Korean vocabulary includes words borrowed directly from Chinese, new Korean words created from Chinese characters, and words borrowed from Sino-Japanese vocabulary.

Yamato-kotoba

yamato kotobaJapanese Wordsnative Japanese
The others are native Japanese vocabulary (yamato kotoba) and borrowings from other, mainly Western languages (gairaigo). It is estimated that approximately 60% of the words contained in a modern Japanese dictionary are kango, but they comprise only about 18% of words used in speech.
Yamato-kotoba is a word describing native Japanese words (also known as wago), as opposed to kango (words of Chinese origin), or words incorporating the kun as opposed to on readings of Chinese characters.

Old Japanese

archaic JapaneseHistorical Japanese phonologykogo
1) Most Sino-Japanese words were borrowed in the 5th - 9th centuries AD, from Early Middle Chinese into Old Japanese. Both languages have changed significantly since then, and in different ways. This has resulted in the respective pronunciations becoming more and more divergent over time.
One difficulty is that the Middle Chinese pronunciations of the characters used are also disputed, and since their reconstruction is partly based on Sino-Japanese pronunciations, there is a danger of circular reasoning.

Languages of East Asia

East Asian LanguagesEast Asian languageEast Asians
China's large territory and advanced culture led Chinese to exert an enormous influence on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.
Their languages absorbed large numbers of Chinese words, known collectively as Sino-Xenic vocabulary, i.e. Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese.

Middle Chinese

MCChineseMiddle
1) Most Sino-Japanese words were borrowed in the 5th - 9th centuries AD, from Early Middle Chinese into Old Japanese. Both languages have changed significantly since then, and in different ways. This has resulted in the respective pronunciations becoming more and more divergent over time. For example, the Middle Chinese word for gunpowder, 火藥, is rendered as hwayak in Korean, and as kayaku in Japanese.

Historical Chinese phonology

ChineseChinese phonologyhistorical phonology
Firstly, the borrowings occurred in three main waves, with the resulting sounds identified as,, and ; these were at different periods over several centuries, from different stages in Historical Chinese phonology, and thus source pronunciations differ substantially depending on time and place.
He combined this with the Sino-Japanese and Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations as well as previously published material on nine other dialects, along with the fanqie analysis of the Guangyun rime dictionary (a later version of the Qieyun of 601 AD).

Reborrowing

reborrowedalso givenborrowed back
However, some have been reborrowed into Chinese.
This process is particularly conspicuous in Chinese and Japanese, where in the late 19th and early 20th century many terms were coined in Japanese on Chinese roots (historically terms had often passed via Korea), known as wasei kango, then borrowed into modern Chinese (and often Korean) with corresponding pronunciation; from the mid 20th century such borrowings are much rarer.

Classical Chinese

literary ChineseclassicalChinese
The earliest written language to be used in Japan was literary Chinese, which has come to be called kanbun in this context.
Sino-Japanese vocabulary

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In Japanese, verbs and adjectives (that is, inflecting adjectives) are closed classes, and despite the large number of borrowings from Chinese, virtually none of these became inflecting verbs or adjectives, instead being conjugated periphrastically as above.
This recent innovation aside, the huge contribution of Sino-Japanese vocabulary was almost entirely borrowed as nouns (often verbal nouns or adjectival nouns).

Kanji

on'yomikun'yomicharacters
13) Mandarin "h", usually from Middle Chinese or will often correspond to "k" or "g" in Japanese, as Old Japanese lacked velar fricatives: Modern Japanese is derived from Old Japanese, which descended in most cases from a Proto-Japonic */p/; however, this lack of velar fricatives in Old Japanese helps preserve the voiced-voiceless contrast between Middle Chinese and that Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean and Vietnamese has lost. Mandarin "z" will often correspond to Japanese "j"; these are also changes in Chinese. Thus, Mandarin hànzì corresponds to Japanese kanji, hànwén (漢文, Chinese written language) to kanbun, and zuìhòu (最後, last) to saigo.
The on'yomi, the Sino-Japanese reading, is the modern descendant of the Japanese approximation of the base Chinese pronunciation of the character at the time it was introduced.

Sino-Xenic pronunciations

pronunciations of Chinese charactersSino-XenicSinoxenic
Both kango in modern Japanese and classical kanbun have Sino-xenic linguistic and phonetic elements also found in Korean and Vietnamese: that is, they are "Sino-foreign," not purely Chinese.
The resulting Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese vocabularies now make up a large part of the lexicons of these languages.

Classical compound

combining formscombining formneoclassical compound
Classical compounds in European languages
See Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Sino-Korean vocabulary, and Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary for discussion.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
Many of these words have also been borrowed into Korean and Vietnamese, forming (a modern Japanese) part of their Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese vocabularies. China's large territory and advanced culture led Chinese to exert an enormous influence on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
Many of these words have also been borrowed into Korean and Vietnamese, forming (a modern Japanese) part of their Sino-Korean and Sino-Vietnamese vocabularies. China's large territory and advanced culture led Chinese to exert an enormous influence on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
China's large territory and advanced culture led Chinese to exert an enormous influence on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
China's large territory and advanced culture led Chinese to exert an enormous influence on Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asian languages throughout history, in a manner somewhat similar the preeminent position that Greek and Latin had in European history.

Length (phonetics)

lengthdurationlong
Chinese borrowings also significantly impacted Japanese phonology, leading to many new developments such as closed syllables (CVC, not just CV) and length becoming a phonetic feature with the development of both long vowels and long consonants.

Vowel length

shortlonglong vowel
Chinese borrowings also significantly impacted Japanese phonology, leading to many new developments such as closed syllables (CVC, not just CV) and length becoming a phonetic feature with the development of both long vowels and long consonants.