Sino-Soviet split

Sino-Soviet tensionsSoviet rivalChinese-Soviet borderrift between the Soviet Union and ChinasegratedSino-SovietSino-Soviet conflictSino-Soviet disputeSino-Soviet rivalrysplit
The Sino–Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretations and practical applications of Marxism–Leninism, as influenced by their respective geopolitics during the Cold War (1945–1991).wikipedia
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Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
The Sino–Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretations and practical applications of Marxism–Leninism, as influenced by their respective geopolitics during the Cold War (1945–1991).
The Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, and many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, and funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxist-LeninistMarxist–LeninistMarxism-Leninism
The Sino–Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretations and practical applications of Marxism–Leninism, as influenced by their respective geopolitics during the Cold War (1945–1991).
Consequent to the ideological Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966), the communist party of each socialist country, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) claimed to be the sole heir-and-successor to the interpretation of Marxism–Leninism, and thus to be the ideological leader of world communism.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet bloccommunist blocEastern Europe
Among the Eastern bloc countries, the Sino-Soviet split was about who would lead the revolution for world communism, to whom — to China or to Russia — would the vanguard parties of the world turn for political advice, financial aid, and military assistance?
Generally, in Western Europe, the term Eastern bloc comprised the USSR and its East European satellite-states, in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon); in Asia, the Socialist bloc comprised the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the People's Republic of Kampuchea; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China (before the Sino-Soviet split in 1961); and in the Americas, the Communist bloc included the Caribbean Republic of Cuba, since 1961.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwar
In the Western world, the SinoSoviet split transformed the geopolitics of the bi-polar cold war into a tri-polar cold war; as important as the erection of the Berlin Wall (1961), the defusing of the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), and the end of the Vietnam War (1945–1975), because the rivalry, between Chinese Stalinism and Russian coexistence, facilitated and realised Mao's Sino–American rapprochement, by way of the 1972 Nixon visit to China.
The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War.

Peaceful coexistence

peaceful co-existencecoexistenceto live together in harmony
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Sino-Soviet debates about the interpretation of Orthodox Marxism became specific disputes about the Soviet Union's policies of national de-Stalinization and of international peaceful coexistence with the Western world.
Debates over differing interpretations of peaceful coexistence were one aspect of the Sino-Soviet split in the 1950s and 1960s.

On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences

Secret Speechdenounceddenunciation of Stalin
Beginning in 1956, after Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin and Stalinism in the speech On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences (25 February 1956), the PRC and the USSR had progressively divergent interpretations of Marxist ideology; by 1961, their intractable differences of ideologic interpretation and praxis provoked the PRC's formal denunciation of Soviet communism as the work of "revisionist traitors" in the USSR.
The speech was a major cause of the Sino-Soviet split, in which China (under Chairman Mao Zedong) and Albania (under First Secretary Enver Hoxha) condemned Khrushchev as a revisionist.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
In the course of the Second World War (1939–1945), the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the nationalist Kuomintang party (KMT) set aside their civil war (1927–1949) in order to fight, defeat, and expel Imperial Japan from China.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the CPC experienced a significant ideological separation from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Return of the Chinese Eastern Railway

Chinese Eastern Railwayreturn to full Chinese sovereignty.returned the Chinese Eastern Railway
In late 1949, as head-of-state of the People's Republic of China, at Moscow (December 1949–February 1950) Mao agreed to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship (1950), which included a $300 million loan, the return of the Chinese Eastern Railway, and a 30-year military alliance.
Furthermore, the return of the railway and associated Friendship Treaty established the era of Sino-Soviet cooperation that would last until the Sino-Soviet split.

1960 International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties

International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties1960international conference of communist parties
In the Socialist Republic of Romania, at the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties (November 1960), in Bucharest, Mao and Khrushchev respectively attacked the Russian and the Chinese interpretations of Orthodox Marxism and Leninism as the wrong road to world socialism in Russia and China.
Issues discussed at these meetings are associated with the Sino-Soviet split.

Soviet–Albanian split

Albanian-Soviet splitbreak with the Soviet Unionbroke
The USSR criticized the People's Socialist Republic of Albania as a politically-backward socialist state, and the Albanian leader, Enver Hoxha, for not transcending Stalinism and for allying with the PRC, from which followed the Soviet–Albanian split (1955–1961).
Occurring within the context of the larger split between China and the USSR, the Soviet–Albanian split culminated in the rupturing of relations in 1961.

Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhouCho En-lai
In late 1964, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai of the PRC went to the USSR, and met Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin, the new leaders of the USSR.
He helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the United States, Taiwan, the Soviet Union (after 1960), India and Vietnam.

Mao Zedong

MaoChairman MaoMao Tse-tung
To that end, Stalin of the USSR ordered Mao Zedong, leader of the CPC, to co-operate with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the KMT, in fighting the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) and expelling the Japanese; afterwards, the communists and the anti-communists renewed their civil war for China in the Chinese Communist Revolution (1945–50).
The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country.

Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance

1950 Sino-Soviet friendship treatya 30-year mutual defense treatya new treaty between the two countries
In late 1949, as head-of-state of the People's Republic of China, at Moscow (December 1949–February 1950) Mao agreed to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship (1950), which included a $300 million loan, the return of the Chinese Eastern Railway, and a 30-year military alliance.
The treaty did not prevent relations between Beijing and Moscow from drastic deterioration in the late 1950s – early 1960s, at the time of the Sino-Soviet split.

22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

22nd Party Congress22nd Congress22nd Congress of the CPSU
In 1961, at the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (17–31 October 1961), the PRC and the USSR revisited their doctrinal disputes about the orthodox interpretation and practical application of Marxism–Leninism.
At the Congress, the Sino-Soviet split hardened, especially due to Soviet de-Stalinization efforts, and it was the last Congress to be attended by the Chinese Communist Party.

Sino-Soviet border conflict

border conflictZhenbao Island Incidentborder clashes
In 1961, the USSR had 12 divisions of soldiers and 200 airplanes at that border; by 1968, there were 25 divisions, 1,200 airplanes, and 120 medium-range missiles; by March 1969, the border confrontations had become the Sino-Soviet border conflict, with fighting at the Ussuri River and on Damansky–Zhenbao Island; more small-scale warfare occurred at Tielieketi in August.
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.

Enver Hoxha

HoxhaFirst Secretary of the PartyHoxha regime
The USSR criticized the People's Socialist Republic of Albania as a politically-backward socialist state, and the Albanian leader, Enver Hoxha, for not transcending Stalinism and for allying with the PRC, from which followed the Soviet–Albanian split (1955–1961).
In the same year, Hoxha traveled to the People's Republic of China, which was then enduring the Sino-Soviet split, and met Mao Zedong.

Stalinism

StalinistStalinistsstalinization
The USSR criticized the People's Socialist Republic of Albania as a politically-backward socialist state, and the Albanian leader, Enver Hoxha, for not transcending Stalinism and for allying with the PRC, from which followed the Soviet–Albanian split (1955–1961). In early 1956, Sino-Soviet relations began deteriorating consequent to Khrushchev's de–Stalinization of the USSR, which he initiated with the speech On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences that criticised Stalin and Stalinism, especially the Great Purge (1936–38) of Soviet society, the rank-and-file of the armed forces, and the CPSU.
Others, such as the Communist Party of China, instead chose to split from the Soviet Union.

Anti-revisionism

anti-revisionistanti-revisionistsAnti-Revisionist Marxism-Leninism
In turn, Peng Zhen insulted Khrushchev as a Marxist revisionist whose political régime as premier of the USSR showed him to be a "patriarchal, arbitrary, and tyrannical" ruler.
During the Sino-Soviet split, the governments of the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong and the People's Republic of Albania under Enver Hoxha proclaimed themselves to be taking an anti-revisionist line and denounced Khrushchev's policies in the Soviet Union.

People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Albaniacommunist regimeCommunist Albania
The USSR criticized the People's Socialist Republic of Albania as a politically-backward socialist state, and the Albanian leader, Enver Hoxha, for not transcending Stalinism and for allying with the PRC, from which followed the Soviet–Albanian split (1955–1961).
The Sino-Soviet split burst into the open in June 1960 at a Romanian Workers' Party congress, at which Khrushchev attempted to secure condemnation of Beijing.

Underground City (Beijing)

Underground CityUnderground City of Beijing
Aware of the Soviet Union's nuclear threat, the PRC built large-scale underground shelters, such as the Underground City in Beijing, and military bomb shelters, such as the Underground Project 131 command center in Hubei, and the 816 Nuclear Military Plant, in the Fuling District of Chongqing city.
At the height of Soviet-Chinese tensions in 1969, Chinese chairman Mao Zedong ordered the construction of the Underground City during the border conflict over Zhenbao Island in the Heilongjiang River.

China and weapons of mass destruction

ChinaChinese nuclear programnuclear weapons
In the 1960–64 period, US presidents Kennedy and Johnson had considered destroying the Chinese program for nuclear weapons before fruition, but the USSR had refused to co-operate in a unilateral first-strike nuclear war.
Although Soviet officials assured China that it was under the Soviet nuclear umbrella, the disagreements widened the emerging Sino-Soviet split.

Sino-Vietnamese War

Chinese invasion of VietnamChina invaded VietnamThird Indochina War
In response, the PRC denounced the Vietnamese and retaliated by invading northern Vietnam in the Sino-Vietnamese War (1979); in turn, the USSR denounced the PRC's invasion of Vietnam.
Following worsening relations between the Soviet Union and China as a result of the Sino-Soviet split of 1956–1966, as many as 1.5 million Chinese troops were stationed along the Sino-Soviet border in preparation for a full-scale war against the Soviets.

Alexei Kosygin

Alexei Nikolaevich KosyginKosygin, AlexeiAleksey Kosygin
In late 1964, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai of the PRC went to the USSR, and met Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin, the new leaders of the USSR.
The Sino–Soviet split chagrined Kosygin a great deal, and for a while he refused to accept its irrevocability; he briefly visited Beijing in 1969 due to increased tension between the USSR and China.

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Test Ban TreatyLimited Test Ban TreatyTest Ban Treaty
In the Western world, the Cuban Missile Crisis made nuclear disarmament the political priority of the Cold War; thus the US, the UK, and the USSR agreed to the Limited Test Ban Treaty (5 August 1963) that formally forbade nuclear-detonation tests in the Earth's atmosphere, in outer space, and under water, yet did allow underground nuclear-detonation tests.
In the 1950s, the Soviet Union assisted the Chinese nuclear program, but stopped short of providing China with an actual nuclear bomb, which was followed by increasingly tense relations in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Underground Project 131

Project 131
Aware of the Soviet Union's nuclear threat, the PRC built large-scale underground shelters, such as the Underground City in Beijing, and military bomb shelters, such as the Underground Project 131 command center in Hubei, and the 816 Nuclear Military Plant, in the Fuling District of Chongqing city.
With the increase of tensions between China and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s, the Chinese leaders deemed it prudent to construct a number of underground facilities to protect the country's population, military, as well as its command and control bodies, in case of a nuclear conflict.