Sipahi

sipahisOttoman cavalrysepahispaheeSpahisTimarliAnatolian cavalryfoot soldierssipâhisSpakh
Sipahi were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.wikipedia
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Timariots

timariotfeudal cavalryTimarli
The sipahis formed two distinct types of cavalry: feudal-like, provincial timarlı sipahi (timariots) which consisted most of the Ottoman army, and salaried, regular kapıkulu sipahi (sipahi of the Porte), which constituted the cavalry part of the Ottoman household troops.
Timariot (or tımar holder; tımarlı in Turkish) was the name given to a Sipahi cavalryman in the Ottoman army.

Timar

timarsTimar Systemtımar
The timar system, where the sultan owned all land but individual plots of land, came with residential rights.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Timar system was one in which the projected revenue of a conquered territory was distributed in the form of temporary land grants among the Sipahis (cavalrymen) and other members of the military class including Janissaries and other kuls (slaves) of the sultan.

Ottoman army in the 15th–19th centuries

Ottoman ArmyOttoman Classical Armyclassical period
This way, the Ottoman classical army's flanks wholly consisted of Timariot cavalry, while the center consisted of Janissary infantry and artillery divisions.
Sipahi refers to all freeborn Ottoman Turkish mounted troops other than akıncıs and tribal horsemen in the Ottoman army.

Cavalry

cavalrymencavalrymanhorse
Sipahi were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.

Akinji

Akıncıakinciakinjis
The term refers to all freeborn Ottoman Turkish mounted troops other than akıncı and tribal horsemen in the Ottoman army.
Since akinjis were seen as irregular militia, they did not have regular salaries as kapikulu soldiers, or fiefs like timarli soldiers; their only income was the booty that they plundered.

Ulubatlı Hasan

* Ulubatlı Hasan (1428–1453), Timariot
Ulubatlı Hasan (sometimes misspelt as Uluabatlı Hasan), Hasan of Ulubat (1428 – May 29, 1453) was a Timarli Sipâhî in the service of Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire who achieved legendary status as a heroic Turkish martyr at the successful Siege of Constantinople.

Janissaries

JanissaryJannisaryJannisaries
The sipahi formed their own distinctive social classes, and were notably in rivalry with the Janissaries, the elite corps of the Sultan. Although the Sipahis of the Porte were originally recruited, like the Janissaries, using the devşirme system, by the time of Sultan Mehmed II, they were chosen from the Muslim land-owners within the Empire (mostly of Turkic origin).
The same source estimates the number of Timarli Sipahi, the provincial cavalry which constituted the main force of the army at 40,000.

Auspicious Incident

The Auspicious IncidentabolitionAuspicious Event
In 1826, after an evident Janissary revolt the Sipahis played an important part in the disbandment of the Janissary corps.
When Mahmud II began forming a new army and hiring European gunners, the Janissaries mutinied as usual and fought on the streets of the Ottoman capital, but the militarily superior Sipahis charged and forced them back into their barracks.

Beylerbey

beglerbegbeglarbegBeglarbegi
The "Timarli Sipahi" or "timariot" (tımarlı) was the holder of a fief of land (تيمار tîmâr) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan or with his official permission by beylerbeys.
Reflecting the office's origin in the military, the primary responsibility of the beylerbeys and their sanjakbeys was the maintenance the sipahi cavalry, formed by the holders of the military fiefs, whom they led in person on campaign.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
Although the Sipahis of the Porte were originally recruited, like the Janissaries, using the devşirme system, by the time of Sultan Mehmed II, they were chosen from the Muslim land-owners within the Empire (mostly of Turkic origin).
Allegedly disguising himself as a Turkish Sipahi and utilizing his command of the Turkish language and customs, Vlad III infiltrated Ottoman camps, ambushed, massacred or captured several Ottoman forces.

Knight

knighthoodknightedknights
Timarli Sipahis' status resembled that of the knights of medieval Europe.

Italian Spahis

Spahis
* Italian Spahis
The name is the French form of the Ottoman word sipahi, a word originally derived from Middle Persian term Spah meaning "army", or "horsemen".

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The main corps of the Ottoman Army included Janissary, Sipahi, Akıncı and Mehterân.

Regular army

regularregularsregular troops
Sipahi were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.

Irregular military

irregularirregularsirregular forces
Other types of cavalry which were not regarded sipahi were the irregular akıncı ("raiders").

Transliteration

translit.transliteratedtransliterate
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Albanian language

AlbanianAlbAlbanian-speaking
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languageDaco-Romanian
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Armenian language

ArmenianArmenian-languagearm
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Serbian language

SerbiansrSerbian:
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Modern Bulgarian
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Macedonian language

MacedonianMacedonian CyrillicMacedonian Slavic
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
The term is also transliterated as spahi and spahee; rendered in other languages as: spahiu in Albanian and Romanian, sepuh in Armenian, spahis in Greek, spahija or spahiya in Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian (Cyrillic: спахија, спахия).