Siphon

syphoninverted siphoninverted siphonsinverted syphonsiphoningsiphonsgravity feedsiphon effectsiphonedsyphon barometer
The word siphon (from "pipe, tube", also spelled syphon) is used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes.wikipedia
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Vacuum pump

suction pumpair pumpair-pump
Siphons were studied further in the 17th century, in the context of suction pumps (and the recently developed vacuum pumps), particularly with an eye to understanding the maximum height of pumps (and siphons) and the apparent vacuum at the top of early barometers. A venturi siphon, also known as an eductor, is not a siphon but a form of vacuum pump using the Venturi effect of fast flowing fluids (e.g. air), to produce low pressures to suction other fluids; a common example is the carburetor.
He said that his model was a larger version of the siphons the Byzantines used to discharge the Greek fire.

Barometer

barometricaneroid barometerbarometers
Siphons were studied further in the 17th century, in the context of suction pumps (and the recently developed vacuum pumps), particularly with an eye to understanding the maximum height of pumps (and siphons) and the apparent vacuum at the top of early barometers. This was initially explained by Galileo Galilei via the theory of horror vacui ("nature abhors a vacuum"), which dates to Aristotle, and which Galileo restated as resintenza del vacuo, but this was subsequently disproved by later workers, notably Evangelista Torricelli and Blaise Pascal – see barometer: history.
On July 27, 1630, Giovanni Battista Baliani wrote a letter to Galileo Galilei explaining an experiment he had made in which a siphon, led over a hill about twenty-one meters high, failed to work.

Book of Ingenious Devices

automatic flute player (and possibly automatic hydropowered organ)Kitab al-Hiyal
The Banu Musa brothers of 9th-century Baghdad invented a double-concentric siphon, which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.
The double-concentric siphon and the funnel with bent end for pouring in different liquids, neither of which appear in any earlier Greek works, were also original inventions by the Banu Musa brothers.

Flush toilet

water closetflush toiletstoilet
Flush toilets often have some siphon effect as the bowl empties.
The portion of the channel behind the bowl is arranged as a siphon tube, whose length is greater than the depth of the water in the bowl.

Urinal

urinalswaterless urinalswaterless urinal
Early urinals incorporated a siphon in the cistern which would flush automatically on a regular cycle because there was a constant trickle of clean water being fed to the cistern by a slightly open valve.
A constant drip-feed of water slowly fills the cistern until a tipping point is reached, when the valve opens (or a siphon begins to drain the cistern), and all the urinals in the group are flushed.

Vertical pressure variation

hydrostatic paradox
At liquid level in the top reservoir, the liquid is under atmospheric pressure, and as one goes up the siphon, the hydrostatic pressure decreases (under vertical pressure variation), since the weight of atmospheric pressure pushing the water up is counterbalanced by the column of water in the siphon pushing down (until one reaches the maximum height of a barometer/siphon, at which point the liquid cannot be pushed higher) – the hydrostatic pressure at the top of the tube is then lower than atmospheric pressure by an amount proportional to the height of the tube.
Siphon

Siphon (disambiguation)

The term "siphon" is used for a number of structures in human and animal anatomy, either because flowing liquids are involved or because the structure is shaped like a siphon, but in which no actual siphon effect is occurring: see Siphon (disambiguation).
A siphon is a tube in an inverted U shape which enables a liquid, under the pull of gravity, to flow upwards and then downwards to discharge at a lower level.

Pump

water pumppumpssteam pump
An external pump has to be applied to start the liquid flowing and prime the siphon (in home use this is often done by a person inhaling through the tube until enough of it has filled with liquid; note this may pose danger to the user, depending on the liquid that is being siphoned).
Gravity pumps include the syphon and Heron's fountain.

Vacuum coffee maker

siphon coffeeSiphon brewersvacuum brewer
An everyday illustration of this is the siphon coffee brewer, which works as follows (designs vary; this is a standard design, omitting coffee grounds):
A vacuum coffee maker operates as a siphon, where heating and cooling the lower vessel changes the vapor pressure of water in the lower, first pushing the water up into the upper vessel, then allowing the water to fall back down into the lower vessel.

Spillway

Uncontrolledun-gated spillwayspillways
A siphon spillway in a dam is usually not technically a siphon as it is generally used to drain elevated water levels.
A siphon makes use of the difference in the height between the intake and the outlet to create a pressure difference needed to remove excess water.

Venturi effect

venturiventuri tubeventuris
A venturi siphon, also known as an eductor, is not a siphon but a form of vacuum pump using the Venturi effect of fast flowing fluids (e.g. air), to produce low pressures to suction other fluids; a common example is the carburetor.
See aspirator and pressure head for discussion of this type of siphon.

Check valve

non-return valveone-way valvecheck
Anti-siphon valves function as a one-direction check valve.
For example, a double check valve is often used as a backflow prevention device to keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back into municipal water supply lines.

Heron's fountain

In a slightly differently configuration, it is also known as Heron's fountain.
Its action may seem less paradoxical if considered as a siphon, but with the upper arch of the tube removed, and the air pressure between the two lower containers providing the positive pressure to lift the water over the arch.

Mariotte's bottle

Marot jar
It further misses a siphon or an outlet for the liquid.

Pressure head

static headheadpressure
See pressure head.
If p 0, we observe that the pressure head is also negative, and the ambient air is sucked into the columns shown in the venturi meter above. This is called a siphon, and is caused by a partial vacuum inside the vertical columns. In many venturis, the column on the left has fluid in it (\psi>0), while only the column on the right is a siphon (\psi

Jiggle syphon

Jiggle syphon
A jiggle syphon (or siphon) is the combination of a syphon pipe and a simple priming pump that uses mechanical shaking action to pump enough liquid up the pipe to reach the highest point, and thus start the syphoning action.

1992 Guadalajara explosions

1992 drainage explosions in Guadalajara1992 explosion in Guadalajaraa series of gas explosions in Guadalajara
1992 Guadalajara explosions for details of an accident where a plumbing method Trap (plumbing) also known as an inverted siphon was partially responsible for gas explosions.
The sewer pipe had been recently rebuilt into a U-shape so that the city could expand its underground metro railway system. Usually sewers are built in a slope so that gravity helps move waste along. In order to get the U-shape to work, an inverted siphon was placed so that fluids could be pushed against gravity. The design was flawed, however. While liquids were successfully pumped through, gases were not, and gas fumes would build up.

Gravity feed

gravity-fedgravity fedgravitationally-controlled
Gravity feed
* Siphon

Gravity

gravitationgravitationalgravitational force
In a narrower sense, the word refers particularly to a tube in an inverted 'U' shape, which causes a liquid to flow upward, above the surface of a reservoir, with no pump, but powered by the fall of the liquid as it flows down the tube under the pull of gravity, then discharging at a level lower than the surface of the reservoir from which it came.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianEgyptians
Egyptian reliefs from 1500 BC depict siphons used to extract liquids from large storage jars.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
There is physical evidence for the use of siphons by Greek engineers in the 3rd century BC at Pergamon.

Pergamon

PergamumPergamenePergamese
There is physical evidence for the use of siphons by Greek engineers in the 3rd century BC at Pergamon.

Hero of Alexandria

HeroHeronHeron of Alexandria
Hero of Alexandria wrote extensively about siphons in the treatise Pneumatica.

Banū Mūsā

Banu MusaAhmadBeni Musa
The Banu Musa brothers of 9th-century Baghdad invented a double-concentric siphon, which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
This was initially explained by Galileo Galilei via the theory of horror vacui ("nature abhors a vacuum"), which dates to Aristotle, and which Galileo restated as resintenza del vacuo, but this was subsequently disproved by later workers, notably Evangelista Torricelli and Blaise Pascal – see barometer: history.