Six-stroke engine

The Kerr engine at the Anson Engine Museum
The M4+2 engine working cycle animation

The term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt to improve on traditional two-stroke and four-stroke engines.

- Six-stroke engine
The Kerr engine at the Anson Engine Museum

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Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot

Internal combustion engine

Overhead cam 4-stroke gasoline engine: C – crankshaft

Overhead cam 4-stroke gasoline engine: C – crankshaft

Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot
Reciprocating engine of a car
Diesel generator for backup power
Bare cylinder block of a V8 engine
Piston, piston ring, gudgeon pin and connecting rod
Valve train above a Diesel engine cylinder head. This engine uses rocker arms but no pushrods.
Engine block seen from below. The cylinders, oil spray nozzle and half of the main bearings are clearly visible.
Diagram showing the operation of a 4-stroke SI engine. Labels:
1 ‐ Induction
2 ‐ Compression
3 ‐ Power
4 ‐ Exhaust
Diagram of a crankcase scavenged 2-stroke engine in operation
Diagram of uniflow scavenging
Bosch magneto
Points and coil ignition
Diagram of an engine using pressurized lubrication
P-V diagram for the ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1–4 in clockwise direction.
Turbofan jet engine
Turbine power plant
Brayton cycle
The Wankel rotary cycle. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft.
One-cylinder gasoline engine, c. 1910
Electric starter as used in automobiles

The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine.

Four-stroke cycle used in gasoline/petrol engines: intake (1), compression (2), power (3), and exhaust (4). The right blue side is the intake port and the left brown side is the exhaust port. The cylinder wall is a thin sleeve surrounding the piston head which creates a space for the combustion of fuel and the genesis of mechanical energy.

Four-stroke engine

Four-stroke engines are the most common internal combustion engine design for motorized land transport, being used in automobiles, trucks, diesel trains, light aircraft and motorcycles.

Four-stroke engines are the most common internal combustion engine design for motorized land transport, being used in automobiles, trucks, diesel trains, light aircraft and motorcycles.

Four-stroke cycle used in gasoline/petrol engines: intake (1), compression (2), power (3), and exhaust (4). The right blue side is the intake port and the left brown side is the exhaust port. The cylinder wall is a thin sleeve surrounding the piston head which creates a space for the combustion of fuel and the genesis of mechanical energy.
An Otto Engine from 1880s US Manufacture
This 2004 Toyota Prius hybrid has an Atkinson-cycle engine as the petrol-electric hybrid engine
The Atkinson Gas Cycle
Audi Diesel R15 at Le Mans
The idealized four-stroke Otto cycle p-V diagram: the
 intake (A) 
stroke is performed by an isobaric expansion, followed by the
 compression (B) 
stroke, performed as an adiabatic compression. Through the combustion of fuel an isochoric process is produced, followed by an adiabatic expansion, characterizing the
 power (C) 
stroke. The cycle is closed by an isochoric process and an isobaric compression, characterizing the exhaust (D) 
stroke.
The four-stroke cycle
 1=TDC
 2=BDC
 A: Intake  
  B: Compression  
  C: Power  
  D: Exhaust
Top dead center, before cycle begins
1 – Intake stroke
2 – Compression stroke
Fuel ignites
3 – Power stroke
4 – Exhaust stroke

By contrast, a six-stroke engine may reduce fuel consumption by as much as 40%.

The Mirrlees No.1 on Display at the Museum

Anson Engine Museum

Situated on the site of the old Anson colliery in Poynton, Cheshire, England.

Situated on the site of the old Anson colliery in Poynton, Cheshire, England.

The Mirrlees No.1 on Display at the Museum
Ruston & Hornsby 25 hp horizontal engine from the University of Sheffield, a model 6H built in 1927
3bhp gas fired Crossley Atmospheric Engine in action operating a winch and crane jib. Acquired from W. Butler & Co, tar distillers, Bristol.

Very rare Griffin 6-stroke engine;

Leonard Dyer

Inventor, patent attorney, and yachtsman from Washington, DC.

Inventor, patent attorney, and yachtsman from Washington, DC.

The most remarkable of his inventions was a patented six-stroke engine using water injected as a 5th stroke for extra power and cooling, to be ejected on the final (sixth) exhaust stroke.

Museum of Bath at Work

Local history museum in Bath, Somerset, England.

Local history museum in Bath, Somerset, England.

In 2007 the museum acquired a rare Griffin six-stroke gas engine, that had been in storage in Yeovil, Somerset, after having been moved from London in 2001.

Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot

Beare-head engine

The Beare-head engine internal combustion engine technology combines a four-stroke engine bottom end and piston, with a ported cylinder head closely resembling that of a two-stroke engine.

The Beare-head engine internal combustion engine technology combines a four-stroke engine bottom end and piston, with a ported cylinder head closely resembling that of a two-stroke engine.

Diagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot

This configuration has been described as a six-stroke engine based on adding together the four strokes per cycle of the bottom piston and the two strokes of the cylinder head piston, but there are essentially only 4 strokes, just with an alternative form of valving.

Ray-traced image of a piston engine

Reciprocating engine

''This article mainly describes reciprocating engine as heat engine.

''This article mainly describes reciprocating engine as heat engine.

Ray-traced image of a piston engine

These operations are repeated cyclically and an engine is said to be 2-stroke, 4-stroke or 6-stroke depending on the number of strokes it takes to complete a cycle.

Figure 1: Heat engine diagram

Timeline of heat engine technology

Gained.

Gained.

Figure 1: Heat engine diagram

1883 - Samuel Griffin of Bath UK patents a six-stroke internal combustion engine.

The phases/strokes of a four-stroke engine. 1: intake 2: compression 3: power 4: exhaust

Stroke (engine)

A phase of the engine's cycle (e.g. compression stroke, exhaust stroke), during which the piston travels from top to bottom or vice versa.

A phase of the engine's cycle (e.g. compression stroke, exhaust stroke), during which the piston travels from top to bottom or vice versa.

The phases/strokes of a four-stroke engine. 1: intake 2: compression 3: power 4: exhaust

Less common designs include five-stroke engines, six-stroke engines and two-and-four stroke engines.

First ion engine

Timeline of motor and engine technology

(c. 30–70 AD) – Hero of Alexandria describes the first documented steam-powered device, the aeolipile.

(c. 30–70 AD) – Hero of Alexandria describes the first documented steam-powered device, the aeolipile.

First ion engine

1915 – Leonard Dyer invents a six-stroke engine, now known as the Crower six-stroke engine named after his reinventor Bruce Crower.