Sjambok

Heavy leather whip.

- Sjambok

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Riot control

Riot control measures are used by law enforcement, military, paramilitary or security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, unlawful demonstration or unlawful protest.

Rank of Icelandic National Police officers in full riot gear during the 2008 Icelandic lorry driver protests.
Indonesian Mobile Brigade Corps riot control personnel and equipment
GRM horse platoon and rioteers Paris - Place de la Concorde - 1934
The centre of the International Settlement of Shanghai, 1928.
Colombian Police armored riot control vehicle with water cannon ISBI
Polish riot police squad in the 1930s, with opaque riot shields and no helmet visors, as polycarbonate had not been invented yet
A German SEK operator in riot gear holding a Tac700 Pepperball Launcher
Gendarmes mobiles carrying gas masks and a grenade launcher for deploying tear gas canisters
Mounted riot police as crowd control during protests in Edinburgh
German police deploy an armoured riot control vehicle at a demonstration in Hamburg.
A New York City Police Department officer stands ready with a sonic weapon, the LRAD 500X
French gendarmes mobiles using tear gas
This gendarme is shooting tear gas canisters using an Alsetex "Cougar" launcher
U.S. Army troops are shown attempting to keep Vietnam War protesters from rioting in Washington, D.C., 1967.
Syrian riot control in Damascus in 2012
Polish riot control police in Warsaw at the March of Independence in 2011
Defensive line of "Berkut" unitmen in riot gear by the Cabinet of Ministers building in Kyiv during 2013 Euromaidan protests.
Riot control group of Rio de Janeiro Police in confrontation with protesters in the historical center of the city.
Italian Celerini in the 1950s.
Pellet shotguns have been used by Indian security forces for crowd control in Jammu and Kashmir against stone pelting mobs.
Intervention vehicle for social events that interfered with demonstrators in Gezi Park (Istanbul) in 2013

Special riot hand weapons include the wooden or rubber baton; the African sjambok, a heavy leather or plastic whip, and the Indian lathi, a 6 to 8 foot long cane with a blunt metal tip.

Congo Free State

Large state and absolute monarchy in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908.

Leopold II, King of the Belgians and de facto owner of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908
Henry Morton Stanley, whose exploration of the Congo region at Leopold's invitation led to the establishment of the Congo Free State under personal sovereignty
Cartoon depicting Leopold II and other imperial powers at Berlin conference 1884
Map of the Congo Free State in 1892
Steamboat in the Congo Free State, 1899
'La revue' of the Force Publique, Boma, capital city of the Congo Free State, 1899
The concessions and the Domaine de la Couronne. The infamous A.B.I.R. company is shown in dark red.
Cecil Rhodes attempted to expand the territory of the British South Africa Company northward into the Congo basin, presenting a problem for Leopold II.
Francis Dhanis, ca. 1900
Clearing tropical forests ate away at profit margins. However, ample plots of cleared land were already available. Above, a Congolese farming village (Baringa, Equateur) is emptied and leveled to make way for a rubber plantation.
Congolese labourers tapping rubber near Lusambo in Kasai.
A typical Force Publique regiment, circa 1900
A Congolese man, Nsala, looking at the severed hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter who was killed and allegedly cannibalized by members of the Force Publique in 1904.
Mutilated Congolese children, image from King Leopold's Soliloquy, Mark Twain's political satire, where the aging king complains that the incorruptible camera was the only witness he had encountered in his long experience that he could not bribe. The book was illustrated with photographs by John Hobbis Harris.
Cartoon by British caricaturist 'Francis Carruthers Gould' depicting King Leopold II, and the Congo Free State.
A 1906 Punch cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, depicting Leopold II as a snake entangling a Congolese man
Roger Casement
E.D. Morel
Proclamation from Inspector-general Ghislain to the population of the Congo, announcing the annexation of the territory by Belgium in 1908
Equestrian statue of Leopold II at the Regent place in Brussels, Belgium
The Monument to General Storms in Brussels daubed in red paint, symbol of the blood of the Congolese people.
Congolese people working at the port of Leopoldville
Construction of a railroad by Congolese workers
Melting latex of rubber in the forest of Lusambo

Armed with modern weapons and the chicotte—a bull whip made of hippopotamus hide—the Force Publique routinely took and tortured hostages, slaughtered families of rebels, and flogged and raped Congolese people with a reign of terror and abuse that cost millions of lives.

Belgian Congo

Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960.

The Belgian Congo (dark green) shown alongside Ruanda-Urundi (light green), 1935
Leopold II, King of the Belgians and de facto owner of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908
The Belgian Congo (dark green) shown alongside Ruanda-Urundi (light green), 1935
Children mutilated during King Leopold II's rule
Former residence of the Governor-General of the Belgian Congo (1908–1923) located in Boma
On the left hand side, the former Ministry of the Colonies, adjacent to the Constitutional Court, Brussels
Map of the Belgian Congo
The Force Publique in German East Africa during World War I
A steam boat arriving at Boma on the Congo River in 1912
Belgo-Congolese troops of the Force Publique after the Battle of Tabora, 19 September 1916
Ruandan migrant workers at the Kisanga mine in Katanga, ca. 1920
Railways (grey/black) and navigable waterways (purple) in the Belgian Congo
Propaganda leaflet produced by the Ministry of the Colonies in the early 1920s
The majority of the uranium used in the Manhattan Project came from the Shinkolobwe mine.
Students in the Teaching laboratory, Medical School, Yakusu, c. undefined 1930–1950
Scheutist missionary on tour in the neighbourhood of Léopoldville around 1920
Education by the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary (c. undefined 1930)
Nurses of the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga and their Congolese assistants, Élisabethville, 1918
A female missionary is pulled in a rickshaw by Congolese men, c. undefined 1920–1930
King Albert I and Queen Elisabeth inspecting the military camp of Léopoldville during their visit to the Belgian Congo, 1928
Joseph Kasa-Vubu, leader of ABAKO and the first democratically elected President of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
Opening meeting of the Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference in Brussels on 20 January 1960
Lumumba and Eyskens sign the document granting independence to the Congo
Belgian soldier lying in front of dead hostages, November 1964, in Stanleyville during Operation Dragon Rouge. Belgian paratroopers freed over 1,800 European and American hostages held by Congolese rebels.
Equestrian statue of Leopold II in Kinshasa

In the 1950s the most blatant discriminatory measures directed at the Congolese were gradually withdrawn (among these: corporal punishment by means of the feared chicote—Portuguese word for whip).

Shah Mustafa

Sufi Muslim figure in the Sylhet region.

Shah Mustafa was present during the Siege of Baghdad (1258).

He is also referred to with the Persian sobriquets; Sher-e-Sowar (Tiger Rider) and Chabukmar (Snake Whipper).

Would You Rather (film)

2012 American psychological horror thriller film directed by David Guy Levy and starring Brittany Snow and Jeffrey Combs.

Theatrical release poster

In the second round, each contestant has 30 seconds to choose between stabbing the person next to them in the thigh with an ice pick or whipping Travis three times with a sjambok.

South African Republic

Independent Boer Republic in Southern Africa which existed from 1852 to 1902, when it was annexed into the British Empire as a result of the Second Boer War.

1st ZAR President Marthinus Pretorius
Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger's wagon
President Paul Kruger in 1898
Piet Cronjé's followers delivering up their rifles
All the east–west railways were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company, while lines were built from the Cape and Natal, and one to Pietersburg was built by a private British company

After consulting Commandant Kruger's Bible, Boshoff commuted the men's sentences to lashes with a sjambok.

Flagellation

Prisoners at a whipping post in a Delaware prison, circa 1907
Public flogging of a slave in Brazil – work of German painter Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802–1858)
Punishment with a knout (Russia, 18th century)
An African-American slave named Gordon, photo taken at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863. The scars are clearly visible because of keloid formation.
1847 disciplinary report re flogging, on the USS John Adams. The United States Congress banned flogging on all U.S. ships on 28 September 1850
British sailor, tied to the grating, being flogged with cat o' nine tails
Fremantle Prison whipping post
Self-flagellation is ritually performed in the Philippines during Holy Week (on Good Friday, before Easter).
Flagellants. From a fifteenth-century woodcut.
Flogging demonstration at the 2004 Folsom Street Fair in San Francisco.

Flagellation (Latin flagellum, 'whip'), flogging or whipping is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, the knout, etc. Typically, flogging is imposed on an unwilling subject as a punishment; however, it can also be submitted to willingly for sadomasochistic pleasure, or performed on oneself, in religious or sadomasochistic contexts.

Léon M'ba

Gabonese politician who served as both the first Prime Minister (1959–1961) and President (1961–1967) of Gabon.

Léon M'ba in 1964
Fangs in a Christian mission, c. 1912
Map of Oubangui-Chari, c. 1910
Flag of the Autonomous Republic of Gabon (1959–1960)
Gabonese and French military officers

The president did not hesitate to enforce the law himself; with a chicotte, he whipped citizens who did not show respect for him, including passersby who "forgot" to salute him.

Kairos Document

Theological statement issued in 1985 by a group of mainly black South African theologians based predominantly in the townships of Soweto, South Africa.

Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco The School of Athens

The KD theologians reject this categorically: "This god [of the State] is an idol ... [it is] the god of teargas, rubber bullets, sjamboks, prison cells and death sentences."

List of English words of Afrikaans origin

Words of Afrikaans origin have entered other languages.

An overview of differences in spelling across English dialects.

sjambok (an ox-hide whip): used by the South African Police Service for riot control, formerly used as a disciplinary tool for misbehaving school children