Skepticism

skepticskepticalscepticismskepticsscepticscepticalsceptics/skepticclassical skepticsdisbelieving
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief or dogma.wikipedia
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Supernatural

supernaturalismsupernatural powersspiritual
It is often directed at domains, such as the supernatural, morality (moral skepticism), theism (skepticism about the existence of God), or knowledge (skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, or of certainty).
Naturalists maintain that nothing beyond the physical world exists, and point to a lack of reliable evidence for anything supernatural, and hence maintain skeptical attitudes towards supernatural concepts.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology, although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience.
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Religious skepticism

religious skepticskepticreligious scepticism
Religious skepticism is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)".
Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
Scientific skepticism concerns testing beliefs for reliability, by subjecting them to systematic investigation using the scientific method, to discover empirical evidence for them.
It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation.

Philosophical skepticism

skepticismscepticismskeptical hypothesis
Philosophical skepticism comes in various forms.
Local skepticism involves being skeptical about particular areas of knowledge, e.g. moral skepticism, skepticism about the external world, or skepticism about other minds, whereas global skepticism is skeptical about the possibility of any knowledge at all.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief or dogma.
This narrative of situation is historical textures woven of fact and fiction, and as Escobar explains further, "even the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense," insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingency, "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way, without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic skepticism common to many critiques."

Doubt

self-doubtdubiousself-doubting
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief or dogma.
It may also form other brands of skepticism, such as Pyrrhonism, which do not take a positive stance in regard to the existence of god(s), but remain negative.

Pyrrho

Pyrrho of ElisOutlines of PyrrhonismPyrrhonic
The first was Pyrrhonism, was founded by Pyrrho of Elis (c.
360) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher and founder of Pyrrhonism.

Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sánchez
A number of Catholic writers, including Francisco Sanches (c.
1550 – November 16, 1623) was a Spanish-Portuguese skeptic philosopher and physician of Sephardi Jewish origin.

Pierre Gassendi

GassendiGassendi, PierreGASSENDI, PETER
1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.
He wrote numerous philosophical works, and some of the positions he worked out are considered significant, finding a way between skepticism and dogmatism.

Michel de Montaigne

MontaigneMichel Eyquem de MontaigneMichel Montaigne
1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.
He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que sçay-je?"

Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa

Jayarasi BhattaJayaraashi BhattaJayarashi Bhatta
Since skepticism is a philosophical attitude and a style of philosophising rather than a position, the Ajñanins may have influenced other skeptical thinkers of India such as Nagarjuna, Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa, and Shriharsha.
Jayarasi represented a philosophy of extreme skepticism, claiming no school of philosophy can claim its view of reality as knowledge, including the Cārvāka itself; however, because Cārvāka philosophy represents common sense, it could be used as a guide.

Michael Shermer

Shermer, Michael
Modern religious skepticism typically emphasizes scientific and historical methods or evidence, with Michael Shermer writing that skepticism is a process for discovering the truth rather than general non-acceptance.
He has expressed reservations about such labels for his lack of belief in a God, however, as he sees them being used in the service of "pigeonholing", and prefers to simply be called a skeptic.

Atheism

atheistatheistsatheistic
Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticism, though these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology (for example, towards divine omnipotence).
Skepticism, based on the ideas of Hume, asserts that certainty about anything is impossible, so one can never know for sure whether or not a god exists.

Critical thinking

criticalcritical analysiscritical thought
The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
In ordinary usage, skepticism (US) or scepticism (UK) (Greek: 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to search, to think about or look for; see also spelling differences) can refer to:

Climate change denial

climate change denierclimate change deniersclimate change sceptic
* Climate change denial is often mislabeled as skepticism
Though there is a distinction between skepticism which indicates doubting the truth of an assertion and outright denial of the truth of an assertion, in the public debate phrases such as "climate scepticism" have frequently been used with the same meaning as climate denialism or contrarianism.

Suspension of judgment

suspend judgmentsuspending judgmentEpochē
Radical forms of skepticism deny that knowledge or rational belief is possible and urge us to suspend judgment on many or all controversial matters.

Pseudoskepticism

pseudoskepticpseudoskeptics
Pseudoskepticism (or pseudoscepticism) is a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so.

Agnosticism

agnosticagnosticsStrong agnosticism
Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticism, though these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology (for example, towards divine omnipotence).
Huxley identified agnosticism not as a creed but rather as a method of skeptical, evidence-based inquiry.

Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rhei
The Heraclitean philosopher Cratylus refused to discuss anything and would merely wriggle his finger, claiming that communication is impossible since meanings are constantly changing.
He seemed to hold the view continuous change warrants skepticism because we cannot define a thing that does not have a permanent nature.

The Skeptic (UK magazine)

The SkepticThe Skeptic'' (UK magazine)The Skeptic'' magazine
The Skeptic is a British magazine and is billed as "the UK’s longest running and foremost sceptical magazine, which examines science, skepticism, secularism, critical thinking and claims of the paranormal."

Arcesilaus

Arcesilaus of PitaneArcesilaüs
The second was Academic Skepticism, so-called because its two leading defenders, Arcesilaus (c.
There are two ways of reconciling the difficulty: either we may suppose him to have thrown out such aphorisms as an exercise for his pupils, as Sextus Empiricus, who calls him a Sceptic, would have us believe; or he may have really doubted the esoteric meaning of Plato, and have supposed himself to have been stripping his works of the figments of the Dogmatists, while he was in fact taking from them all certain principles.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
The historian Will Durant writes that Plato was "as skeptical of atheism as of any other dogma".
According to some ancient traditions like that of Diogenes Laërtius, Plato received these ideas through Heraclitus' disciple Cratylus, who held the more radical view that continuous change warrants skepticism because we cannot define a thing that does not have a permanent nature.

Skeptical movement

scientific skepticismskepticscientific skeptic
Scientific skepticism concerns testing beliefs for reliability, by subjecting them to systematic investigation using the scientific method, to discover empirical evidence for them.
Scientific skepticism involves the application of skeptical philosophy, critical-thinking skills, and knowledge of science and its methods to empirical claims, while remaining agnostic or neutral to non-empirical claims (except those that directly impact the practice of science).