Skepticism

skepticskepticalscepticismskepticsscepticscepticalscepticsglobal skepticismskeptical philosophy/skeptic
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.wikipedia
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Supernatural

supernaturalismspiritualsupernatural powers
It is often directed at domains, such as the supernatural, morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or knowledge (skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, or of certainty).
Naturalists maintain that nothing beyond the physical world exists and hence maintain skeptical attitudes towards supernatural concepts.

Religious skepticism

skepticskepticismreligious scepticism
Religious skepticism is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)".
Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology, although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience.
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
Scientific skepticism concerns testing beliefs for reliability, by subjecting them to systematic investigation using the scientific method, to discover empirical evidence for them.
It involves careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept.

Philosophical skepticism

skepticismscepticismSkeptics
Philosophical skepticism comes in various forms.
Local skepticism involves being skeptical about particular areas of knowledge, e.g. moral skepticism, skepticism about the external world, or skepticism about other minds, whereas global skepticism is skeptical about the possibility of any knowledge at all.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In philosophy, skepticism can refer to:
Other traditions include Cynicism, Stoicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism.

Pyrrhonism

PyrrhonistPyrrhonistsPyrrhonian
One was Pyrrhonian skepticism, which was founded by Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360–270 BCE).
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC. It is best known through the surviving works of Sextus Empiricus, writing in the late second century or early third century AD.

Pyrrho

Pyrrho of ElisPyrrho the SkepticPyrrho''' (Greek philosopher)
One was Pyrrhonian skepticism, which was founded by Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360–270 BCE).
360) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher and founder of Pyrrhonism.

Francisco Sanches

A number of Catholic writers, including Francisco Sanches (c. 1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.
Francisco Sanches or Francisco Sánchez (c. 1550 – November 16, 1623) was a Spanish-Portuguese skeptic philosopher and physician of Sephardi Jewish origin.

Doubt

self-doubtdubiousself-doubting
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English, and Canadian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
It may also form other brands of skepticism, such as Pyrrhonism, which do not take a positive stance in regard to the existence of god(s), but remain negative.

Pierre Gassendi

GassendiGassendi, PierreGASSENDI, PETER
A number of Catholic writers, including Francisco Sanches (c. 1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.
He wrote numerous philosophical works, and some of the positions he worked out are considered significant, finding a way between skepticism and dogmatism.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
2) the doctrine that true knowledge or some particular knowledge is uncertain;
This narrative of situation is historical textures woven of fact and fiction, and as Escobar explains further, "even the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense," insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingency, "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way, without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic skepticism common to many critiques."

Michel de Montaigne

MontaigneMichel Eyquem de MontaigneAn Apology for Raymond Sebond
A number of Catholic writers, including Francisco Sanches (c. 1550–1623), Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), and Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) deployed ancient skeptical arguments to defend moderate forms of skepticism and to argue that faith, rather than reason, must be the primary guide to truth.
He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que sçay-je?"

Michael Shermer

Shermer, Michael
Modern religious skepticism typically emphasizes scientific and historical methods or evidence, with Michael Shermer writing that skepticism is a process for discovering the truth rather than general non-acceptance.
He has expressed reservations about such labels for his lack of belief in a God, however, as he sees them being used in the service of "pigeonholing", and prefers to simply be called a skeptic.

Atheism

atheistatheistsatheistic
Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticism, though these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology (for example, towards divine omnipotence).
Skepticism, based on the ideas of Hume, asserts that certainty about anything is impossible, so one can never know for sure whether or not a god exists.

Critical thinking

criticalcritical analysiscritical thought
Critical thinking
The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence.

Pseudoskepticism

pseudoskepticpseudoskeptics
Pseudoskepticism
Pseudoskepticism (or pseudoscepticism) is a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so.

Agnosticism

agnosticagnosticsNon believer/Agnostic
Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticism, though these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology (for example, towards divine omnipotence).
Huxley identified agnosticism not as a creed but rather as a method of skeptical, evidence-based inquiry.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
In ordinary usage, skepticism (US) or scepticism (UK) (Greek: 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to search, to think about or look for; see also spelling differences) can refer to:

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
The historian Will Durant writes that Plato was "as skeptical of atheism as of any other dogma."
According to some ancient traditions like that of Diogenes Laërtius, Plato received these ideas through Heraclitus' disciple Cratylus, who held the more radical view that continuous change warrants skepticism because we cannot define a thing that does not have a permanent nature.

Arcesilaus

Arcesilaüs
The other was Academic skepticism, so-called because its two leading defenders, Arcesilaus (c. 315–240 BCE) and Carneades (c. 217–128 BCE) were Heads of Plato’s Academy.
There are two ways of reconciling the difficulty: either we may suppose him to have thrown out such aphorisms as an exercise for his pupils, as Sextus Empiricus, who calls him a Sceptic, would have us believe; or he may have really doubted the esoteric meaning of Plato, and have supposed himself to have been stripping his works of the figments of the Dogmatists, while he was in fact taking from them all certain principles.

The Skeptic (UK magazine)

The SkepticThe Skeptic'' (UK magazine)The Skeptic'' magazine
The Skeptic (UK magazine), founded by Wendy M. Grossman, examines secularism and the paranormal
The Skeptic is a British magazine and is billed as "the UK’s longest running and foremost sceptical magazine, which examines science, skepticism, secularism, critical thinking and claims of the paranormal."

Sextus Empiricus

Empiricus, Sextusfamous proverbThe Ten Modes of Pyrrhonism
Most of what we know about ancient skepticism is due to Sextus Empiricus, a Pyrrhonian skeptic who lived in the second or third century A.D. His major work, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, contains a lucid summary of stock skeptical arguments.
Skepticism

Skeptical movement

scientific skepticismskepticskeptical
Scientific skepticism concerns testing beliefs for reliability, by subjecting them to systematic investigation using the scientific method, to discover empirical evidence for them.
The skeptical movement ([[American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences|British spelling]]: sceptical movement) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism). Scientific skepticism involves the application of skeptical philosophy, critical-thinking skills, and knowledge of science and its methods to empirical claims, while remaining agnostic or neutral to non-empirical claims (except those that directly impact the practice of science).

Trivialism

trivial
Trivialism (opposite of skepticism)
In philosophy, trivialism is considered by some to be the complete opposite of skepticism.