Skylab

Skylab Orbital WorkshopSky LabSkylab space stationThe Skylab programdry workshopground-based full-sized trainerSkylab 1Skylab launchSkylab programSkylab Reentry Program
Skylab was a United States space station launched and operated by NASA, and occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974 – the only space station the U.S. has operated exclusively.wikipedia
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NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)space program
Skylab was a United States space station launched and operated by NASA, and occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974 – the only space station the U.S. has operated exclusively.
Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle.

Saturn V

SaturnSaturn V rocketC-5
It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a weight of 170000 lb. Lifting Skylab into low earth orbit was the final mission and launch of a Saturn V rocket (famous for carrying the manned Moon landing missions).
The three-stage liquid-propellant super heavy-lift launch vehicle was developed to support the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon and was later used to launch Skylab, the first American space station.

Space station

space stationsorbital stationstation
Skylab was a United States space station launched and operated by NASA, and occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974 – the only space station the U.S. has operated exclusively.
Previous stations include the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.

Apollo command and service module

command modulecommand and service moduleCommand/Service Module
Three missions delivered three-astronaut crews in the Apollo command and service module (Apollo CSM), launched by the smaller Saturn IB rocket. Studies generally looked at platforms launched by the Saturn V, followed up by crews launched on Saturn IB using an Apollo command and service module, or a Gemini capsule on a Titan II-C, the latter being much less expensive in the case where cargo was not needed.
Following the conclusion of the Apollo program and during 1973–1974, three CSMs ferried astronauts to the orbital Skylab space station.

Skylab 4

4finalSkylab
The record for human time spent in orbit was extended beyond the 23 days set by the Soyuz 11 crew aboard Salyut 1, to 84 days by the Skylab 4 crew. Three manned missions, designated SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4, were made to Skylab.
Skylab 4 (also SL-4 and SLM-3 ) was the third manned Skylab mission and placed the third and final crew aboard the first American space station.

Apollo Telescope Mount

Apollo Telescope Missionsimilar to proposalsolar observatory
Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount (a multi-spectral solar observatory), Multiple Docking Adapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module with extravehicular activity (EVA) hatches, and the Orbital Workshop (the main habitable space inside Skylab).
The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
After Skylab, NASA space station/laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station Freedom (which was later merged into the International Space Station).
The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US. The station has been continuously occupied for since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000.

Saturn IB

IBSaturn 1-BSaturn 1B
Three missions delivered three-astronaut crews in the Apollo command and service module (Apollo CSM), launched by the smaller Saturn IB rocket.
In 1973, the year after the Apollo lunar program ended, three Apollo CSM/Saturn IBs ferried crews to the Skylab space station.

Salyut 1

Saljutspace station Salyut 1
The record for human time spent in orbit was extended beyond the 23 days set by the Soyuz 11 crew aboard Salyut 1, to 84 days by the Skylab 4 crew.
One other motivation for the space station program was a desire to one-up the US Skylab program then in development.

Apollo program

ApolloApollo missionsApollo space program
A large station was no longer necessary for such purposes, and the United States Apollo program to send men to the Moon chose a mission mode that would not need in-orbit assembly.
Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory

MOLGemini 2-MOLAir Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program
The DoD wanted its own manned facility, however, and in December it announced Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL), a small space station primarily intended for photo reconnaissance using large telescopes directed by a two-man crew.
U.S. space station development was instead pursued with the civilian NASA Skylab (Apollo Applications Program) which flew in the mid-1970s.

Johnson Space Center

Manned Spacecraft CenterNASA Johnson Space CenterJSC
As part of their general work, in August 1964 the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) presented studies on an expendable lab known as Apollo "X", short for Apollo Extension System.
It has become popularly known for its flight control function, identified as "Mission Control" during the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo–Soyuz, and Space Shuttle program flights.

Canceled Apollo missions

Apollo 18Apollo 19cancellation
Later, several Moon missions were canceled as well, originally to be Apollo missions 18 through 20.
After the landing by Apollo 12, Apollo 20, which would have been the final manned mission to the Moon, was canceled to allow Skylab to launch as a "dry workshop" (assembled on the ground in an unused S-IVB Saturn IB second stage).

Project Gemini

GeminiGemini programGemini spacecraft
Studies generally looked at platforms launched by the Saturn V, followed up by crews launched on Saturn IB using an Apollo command and service module, or a Gemini capsule on a Titan II-C, the latter being much less expensive in the case where cargo was not needed.
The only AAP project funded was Skylab – which used existing spacecraft and hardware – thereby eliminating the need for Big Gemini.

Skylab Rescue

Rescue Missiona rescue missionAS-208
Rescuing astronauts from Skylab was possible in the most likely emergency circumstances.
The Skylab Rescue Mission (also SL-R) was a backup rescue flight as part of a contingency plan for the Skylab space station.

Marshall Space Flight Center

MSFCGeorge C. Marshall Space Flight CenterMarshall
A reason von Braun, head of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center during the 1960s, advocated for a smaller station after his large one was not built was that he wished to provide his employees with work beyond developing the Saturn rockets, which would be completed relatively early during Project Apollo.
Following the highly successful Moon landing, including initial scientific exploration, MSFC had a major role in Post-Apollo activities; this included Skylab, the United States' first space station.

Skylab 2

first manned Skylab missionfirst manned missionfirst Skylab mission
Three manned missions, designated SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4, were made to Skylab.
Skylab 2 (also SL-2 and SLM-1 ) was the first manned mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station.

Skylab 3

3second manned crewsecond Skylab crew
Three manned missions, designated SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4, were made to Skylab.
Skylab 3 (also SL-3 and SLM-2 ) was the second manned mission to the first American space station, Skylab.

Extravehicular activity

EVAspacewalkextra-vehicular activity
Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount (a multi-spectral solar observatory), Multiple Docking Adapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module with extravehicular activity (EVA) hatches, and the Orbital Workshop (the main habitable space inside Skylab).
Astronauts also used EVA in 1973 to repair launch damage to Skylab, the United States' first space station.

S-IVB

S-4BS-IVB stageS-IVB-200
A proposal to study the use of a Saturn S-IVB as a manned space laboratory was documented in 1962 by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
A surplus S-IVB tank, serial number 212, was converted into the hull for the Skylab, the first American space station.

Jack Kinzler

This solution was designed by NASA's "Mr. Fix It" Jack Kinzler, who won the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for his efforts.
Jack Kinzler (January 9, 1920 – March 4, 2014) was a NASA engineer, the former chief of the Technical Services Center at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, known within the agency as Mr. Fix It. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for creating the solar shield that saved Skylab after the original micrometeoroid shield was lost during launch of the station.

Orbital decay

decayeddecayingdecay
Later plans to reuse Skylab were stymied by delays in development of the Space Shuttle, and Skylab's decaying orbit could not be stopped.
Uncontrolled orbital decay brought down the Skylab space station, and (relatively) controlled orbital decay was used to de-orbit the Mir space station.

Space food

foodastronaut mealsavailable food on their flights
Skylab food significantly improved on its predecessors by prioritizing edibility over scientific needs.
Larger living areas on the Skylab space station (1973–1974) allowed for an on-board refrigerator and freezer, which allowed perishable and frozen items to be stored and made microgravity the primary obstacle.

Skylab Medical Experiment Altitude Test

Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT)
Also of note was the three-man crew of Skylab Medical Experiment Altitude Test, who spent 56 days at low-pressure in 1972 on Earth.
The Skylab Medical Experiment Altitude Test, or SMEAT, was a 56-day simulation of an American Skylab space mission from July 26–September 19, 1972 at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas.

Space Station Freedom

Space Station ''FreedomFreedomSpace Station
After Skylab, NASA space station/laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station Freedom (which was later merged into the International Space Station).
At the same time, late 1986, NASA carried out a study into new configuration options to reduce development costs; options studied ranged from the use of a Skylab-type station to a phased development of the Dual-Keel configuration.