Slavery

Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE
Flogging a slave fastened to the ground, illustration in an 1853 anti-slavery pamphlet
A poster for a slave auction in Georgia, U.S., 1860
Portrait of an older woman in New Orleans with her enslaved servant girl in the mid-19th century
The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming Christian slaves held in North Africa (1637).
Sale and inspection of slaves
Branding of a female slave
Barefooted slaves depicted in David Roberts' Egypt and Nubia, issued between 1845 and 1849
Slave branding, c. 1853
Corinthian black-figure terra-cotta votive tablet of slaves working in a mine, dated to the late seventh century BC
Ishmaelites purchase Joseph, by Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 1860
Slave Market in Ancient Rome, by Jean-Léon Gérôme
13th-century slave market in Yemen.
Adalbert of Prague pleads with Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia for the release of slaves
A British captain witnessing the miseries of slaves in Ottoman Algeria, 1815
Crimean Tatar raiders enslaved more than 1 million Eastern Europeans.
19th-century engraving depicting an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara Desert.
Slave market in Algiers, 1684
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River in East Africa, 19th century
A model showing a cross-section of a typical 1700s European slave ship on the Middle Passage, National Museum of American History.
Statue of Bussa, who led the largest slave rebellion in Barbadian history.
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil, by Johann Moritz Rugendas
Slave punishment by Jacques Étienne Arago, 1839.
Slaves in Cuba unloading ice from Maine, 1832
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
Planting the sugar cane, British West Indies, 1823
On March 22, 1873, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico. The owners were compensated.
Funeral at slave plantation, Dutch Suriname. 1840–1850.
A coffle of slaves being driven on foot from Staunton, Virginia to Tennessee in 1850.
Whipping keloid scars of escaped slave, Gordon, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1863). This famous photo was distributed by abolitionists.
Slaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790).
A contract from the Tang dynasty recording the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five coins.
Kisaeng, women from outcast or slave families who were trained to provide entertainment, conversation, and sexual services to men of the upper class.
Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 19th century
Workers being forced to haul rocks up a hill in a Gulag
Forced slave labourers in a Buchenwald concentration camp during World War II
Modern incidence of slavery, as a percentage of the population, by country.
Tuareg society is traditionally feudal, ranging from nobles, through vassals, to dark-skinned slaves.
A world map showing countries by prevalence of female trafficking
Chinese Emperor Wang Mang abolished slavery in 17 CE but the ban was overturned after his assassination.
Olaudah Equiano, His autobiography, published in 1789, helped in the creation of the Slave Trade Act 1807 which ended the African slave trade for Britain and its colonies.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born in Virginia, was the first president of Liberia, which was founded in 1822 for freed American slaves.
Poster for Spartacus

Someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property.

- Slavery
Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE

500 related topics

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Child labor in brick kilns in South Asia

Debt bondage

Pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation.

Pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation.

Child labor in brick kilns in South Asia
Workers storing rice in India in 1952
A worker preparing fish caught off the coast of South Africa

Though the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 by the International Labour Organization, which included 187 parties, sought to bring organised attention to eradicating slavery through forms of forced labor, formal opposition to debt bondage in particular came at the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery in 1956.

Proclamation of the Abolition of Slavery in the French Colonies, 27 April 1848, 1849, by François Auguste Biard, Palace of Versailles

Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom

The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries.

The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries.

Proclamation of the Abolition of Slavery in the French Colonies, 27 April 1848, 1849, by François Auguste Biard, Palace of Versailles

It frequently occurred sequentially in more than one stage – for example, as abolition of the trade in slaves in a specific country, and then as abolition of slavery throughout empires.

"Am I Not a Man and a Brother?", 1787 medallion designed by Josiah Wedgwood for the British anti-slavery campaign

Abolitionism

"Am I Not a Man and a Brother?", 1787 medallion designed by Josiah Wedgwood for the British anti-slavery campaign
The Chevalier de Saint-Georges, known as the "Black Mozart", was, by his social position, and by his political involvement, a figurehead of free blacks.
Jacques Pierre Brissot (1754–1793), who organized the Society of the Friends of the Blacks in 1788.
Proclamation of the Abolition of Slavery in the French Colonies, 27 April 1848, by Biard (1849)
Lord Mansfield (1705–1793), whose opinion in Somerset's Case (1772) was widely taken to have held that there was no basis in law for slavery in England.
Olaudah Equiano was a member of an abolitionist group of prominent free Africans living in Britain, and he was active among leaders of the anti-slave trade movement in the 1780s.
The painting of the 1840 Anti-Slavery Convention at Exeter Hall.
A poster advertising a special chapel service to celebrate the Abolition of Slavery in 1838
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
Thomas Clarkson was the key speaker at the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society's (today known as Anti-Slavery International) first conference in London, 1840
Hugh Elliot was a noted abolitionist. Whilst Governor in the British West Indies, he was reported to be the driving force behind the arrest, trial and execution of a wealthy white planter Arthur Hodge for the murder of a slave.
Punishing slaves at Calabouço, in Rio de Janeiro, c. 1822. Brazil in 1888 was the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery.
Chief Justice Thomas Andrew Lumisden Strange – helped free Black Nova Scotian slaves
Uncle Tom's Cabin inflamed public opinion in the North and Britain against the evils of slavery.
Black volunteer soldiers muster out to their first freedom, Harper's Weekly, 1866
Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery. From at least the 1860s onwards, photography was a powerful tool in the abolitionist movement.
José Gregorio Monagas abolished slavery in Venezuela in 1854.
Statue on Kunta Kinteh Island, The Gambia, commemorating the end of the Atlantic slave trade; the stick figure is a Kanaga mask.
Actress Lucy Liu speaking out against slavery

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, is the movement to end slavery.

Slavery in Brazil by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839). Two enslaved people enduring brutal punishment in 19th-century Brazil; the man in the foreground has been bucked.

Slavery in Brazil

Established in 1516, with members of one tribe enslaving captured members of another.

Established in 1516, with members of one tribe enslaving captured members of another.

Slavery in Brazil by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839). Two enslaved people enduring brutal punishment in 19th-century Brazil; the man in the foreground has been bucked.
Engenho in the Captaincy of Pernambuco, the largest and richest sugar-producing area in the world during Colonial Brazil
Recife was the first slave port in the Americas.
Domingos Jorge Velho, a notable bandeirante
Slave sale receipt, 1848. National Archives of Brazil
The Afro-Brazilian bounty hunter looking for escaped slaves c. 1823
Slaves mining for diamonds in Minas Gerais (ca. 1770s)
Cross-section of a slaver ship, from Notices of Brazil in 1828 and 1829 by Robert Walsh
Signed manuscript of the Lei Áurea abolishing slavery in Brazil "as of the date of this document"
Family dining by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839). A Brazilian family in Rio de Janeiro.
This painting by Johann Moritz Rugendas depicts a scene below deck of a slave ship headed to Brazil. Rugendas was an eyewitness to the scene.
Punishing slaves at Calabouco, in Rio de Janeiro, c. 1822
Francisco Paulo de Almeida (1826-1901), first and only Baron of Guaraciaba, title granted by Princess Isabel. Negro, he possessed one of the greatest fortunes of the imperial period, getting to own approximately one thousand slaves.
House slaves c. 1820, by Jean-Baptiste Debret
Recently bought slaves in Brazil on their way to the farms of the landowners who bought them, c. 1830
Campo Grande Circuit, on September Seven Avenue
Rocinha Favela Brazil slums

The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.

Galician slaughter in 1846 was a revolt against serfdom, directed against manorial property and oppression.

Serfdom

The status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems.

The status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems.

Galician slaughter in 1846 was a revolt against serfdom, directed against manorial property and oppression.
Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries
Punishment with a knout. Whipping was a common punishment for Russian serfs.
Reeve and serfs in feudal England, c. 1310

It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed during the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century.

Criticism about the Azeri forced marriage tradition from early 20th-century satirical periodical Molla Nasraddin. Forced marriage is the theme for the cartoon with the caption – Free love. The image should be read from right to left. The first picture in the right: Should you not want to go voluntarily, I will take you by force. In the next picture: The akhund – cleric says: "Lady, since you don't say anything, it seems that you agree. By the order of God I marry you to this gentleman".

Forced marriage

Marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without their consent or against their will.

Marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without their consent or against their will.

Criticism about the Azeri forced marriage tradition from early 20th-century satirical periodical Molla Nasraddin. Forced marriage is the theme for the cartoon with the caption – Free love. The image should be read from right to left. The first picture in the right: Should you not want to go voluntarily, I will take you by force. In the next picture: The akhund – cleric says: "Lady, since you don't say anything, it seems that you agree. By the order of God I marry you to this gentleman".
Unequal marriage, a 19th-century painting by Russian artist Pukirev. It depicts an arranged marriage where a young girl is forced to marry against her will.
Forced Marriage Unit campaign
Prime Minister David Cameron accompanied by Foreign Office Minister Alistair Burt and Home Office Minister Lynne Featherstone visited the Forced Marriage Unit, 8 June 2012 to meet with campaigners Aneeta Prem, Jasvinder Sanghera and Diana Nammi to discuss the new legislation and the range of measures that will be introduced to increase support and protection for victims.
Forced Marriage Unit, UK

Historically, forced marriage was also used to require a captive (slave or prisoner of war) to integrate with the host community, and accept his or her fate.

Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE

Voluntary slavery

Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE

Voluntary slavery, in theory, is the condition of slavery entered into at a point of voluntary consent.

Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.

Civilization

Any complex society characterized by the development of a political state, social stratification, urbanization, and symbolic systems of communication beyond natural spoken language (namely, a writing system).

Any complex society characterized by the development of a political state, social stratification, urbanization, and symbolic systems of communication beyond natural spoken language (namely, a writing system).

Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
The Acropolis of Athens: Athens is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.
The End of Dinner by Jules-Alexandre Grün (1913). The emergence of table manners and other forms of etiquette and self-restraint are presented as a characteristic of civilized society by Norbert Elias in his book The Civilizing Process (1939).
Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle
A Blue Shield International mission in Libya during the war in 2011 to protect the cultural assets there.
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
The ruins of Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan
A world map of major civilizations according to the political hypothesis Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington.
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.<ref>Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur in 1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629042823/http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/tafur.html#ch5 |date=29 June 2011 }}).</ref>
The Acropolis in Greece, directly influencing architecture and engineering in Western, Islamic and Eastern civilizations up to the present day, 2400 years after construction.
The Persepolis in Iran: Pictures of the Gate of All Nations, the main entrance for all representatives of other nations and states. Persepolis appears to have been a grand ceremonial complex, that it was especially used for celebrating Nowruz, the Persian New Year, in 515 BC.
The Temples of Baalbek in Lebanon show us the religious and architectural styles of some of the world's most influential civilizations including the Phoenicians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs.
The Roman Forum in Rome, Italy, the political, economic, cultural and religious center of the Ancient Rome civilization, during the Republic and later Empire, its ruins still visible today in modern-day Rome.
The Ziggurat of Ur in Iraq. Ziggurats are iconic monuments of ancient Mesopotamian civilization, which developed the first true cities in the world<ref name="Alex, Bridget">{{cite web |last1=Alex |first1=Bridget |title=Which Ancient City is Considered the Oldest in the World? |url=https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/which-ancient-city-is-considered-the-oldest-in-the-world |website=Discover |publisher=Kalmbach Media CO. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and influenced numerous kingdoms and empires in the Near East and the Mediterranean in domains such as architecture, religion, trade, artisanry, writing, law, and mathematics.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Johandi |first1=Andreas |title=Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion: The Example of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions |journal=ENDC Proceedings |date=2012 |volume=16 |pages=159–179 |url=https://www.ksk.edu.ee/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/KVUOA_Toimetised_16_9_Johandi.pdf |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Jacobsen |first1=Thorkild |title=Mesopotamian Religion |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mesopotamian-religion |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=David |first1=Katie |title=From Babylon to Crete, a Millennium of Influence: The Creation of the Gortyn Law Code |url=http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y |website=Brandeis.edu |publisher=Brandeis University |year=2014 |access-date=2021-06-06 |archive-date=10 August 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810014729/http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Papakitsos |first1=Evangelos C. |title=Inquiring into the Origin of the Minoan Civilization via Systems Modelling in Humanities |journal=Social Science and Humanities Research |date=2020 |volume=3 |issue=5 |pages=40–58 |url=http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/277/133 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ancient Mathematical Sources |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/mathematics/Ancient-mathematical-sources |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
While the Great Wall of China was built to protect Ancient Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of nomadic groups, over thousands of years the region of China was also home to many influential civilizations.
Virupaksha Temple at Hampi in India. The region of India is home and center to major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism and has influenced other cultures and civilizations, particularly in Asia.
Machu Picchu in Peru is the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization in the Andean mountains. One of the New7Wonders of the World.
El Castillo, at Chichen Itza. The Maya civilization is noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom. Western civilization is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.<ref name="PerryChase2012">{{cite book|author1=Marvin Perry |author2=Myrna Chase |author3=James Jacob |author4=Margaret Jacob |author5=Theodore H. Von Laue|title=Western Civilization: Since 1400|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|date=1 January 2012|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-1-111-83169-1|page=XXIX|access-date=11 January 2021|archive-date=23 May 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200523120857/https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|url-status=live}}</ref> Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.<ref>{{cite book |last=Spielvogel |first=Jackson J. |title=Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715 |year=2016 |isbn=978-1-305-63347-6 |edition=Cengage Learning |page=156}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Neill |first=Thomas Patrick |title=Readings in the History of Western Civilization, Volume 2 |year=1957 |edition=Newman Press |page=224}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author-link=Gerald O'Collins|last1=O'Collins|first1=Gerald|title=Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity |year=2003|isbn=978-0-19-925995-3|publisher=Oxford University Press |last2=Farrugia|first2=Maria |page=v (preface)}}</ref><ref>Roman Catholicism {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150506111019/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507284/Roman-Catholicism |date=6 May 2015 }}, "Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica</ref><ref name="Caltron J.H Hayas">Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p. 2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo–Graeco–Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.</ref>
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. An architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox civilization.<ref>{{harvnb|Cameron|2009}}.</ref><ref name="M130">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982}}.</ref><ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996">{{harvnb|Heinle|Schlaich|1996}}</ref> Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity, and Ottoman architecture.<ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996"/> Represents the legacy of the Byzantine Empire one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe,<ref name="M19">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982|p=19}}.</ref> noted for its art, architecture, science, medicine, and law.<ref>{{harvnb|Anastos|1962|p=409}}.</ref>
The Round city of Baghdad was founded by caliph Al-Mansur in 762–766 CE as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, setting the stage for the Islamic Golden Age beginning with the subsequent construction of the House of Wisdom. It is the fabled city in One Thousand and One Nights.<ref name="Netton">{{cite book |last1=Netton |first1=Ian Richard |title=Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization and Religion |date=19 December 2013 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-135-17967-0 |pages=80–81 |url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |access-date=4 September 2020 |language=en |archive-date=1 April 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210401104746/https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Borobudur in Indonesia is the world's largest Buddhist monument and represents the Javanese and Malay empire of Srivijaya,<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Buddhist Temple |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-buddhist-temple/ |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Zakharov">{{cite web |last1=Zakharov |first1=Anton O. |title=The Śailendras Reconsidered |url=https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/nsc_working_paper_series_12.pdf |publisher=ISEAS |year=2012 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Dellios and Ferguson">{{cite web |last1=Dellios |first1=Rosita |last2=Ferguson |first2=James R. |title=Thinking Through Srivijaya: Polycentric Networks in Traditional Southeast Asia |url=http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/GSCIS%20Singapore%202015/Archive/23e81aa1-2e38-42a5-86f5-d95c45e4d9ce.pdf |publisher=Bond University, Australia |year=2015 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> a prominent seaborne civilization and center of scholarship whose religious, cultural, political, and economic influence spread throughout Southeast Asia and into China, India, Tibet, and Korea. <ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/184/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakusu |first1=Junjiro |title=An Introduction to I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695) |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |year=1896 |publisher=Oxford, The Clarendon press |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="sen">{{Cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra |title=A Textbook of Medieval Indian History |publisher=Primus Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-9-38060-734-4 |page=34}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow; the most popular icon of Russian civilization.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.lonelyplanet.com/russia/moscow/attractions/st-basils-cathedral/a/poi-sig/373447/360429|title=St Basil's Cathedral|work=Lonely Planet|access-date=10 March 2021}}</ref> Russian civilization has had a considerable influence on global culture, it also has a rich material culture and a tradition in science and technology.
Angkor Wat in Cambodia is the largest religious structure ever constructed in human history<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Religious Structure |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-religious-structure |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and represents the legacy of the Khmer Empire, one of the most influential civilizations of Southeast Asia and home to the world's biggest preindustrial city by area.<ref name="Bang et al.">{{cite book |last1=Bang |first1=Peter Fibiger |last2=Bayly |first2=C. A. |last3=Scheidel |first3=Walter |title=The Oxford World History of Empire: Volume Two: The History of Empires |date=2020 |publisher=Oxford University Press |pages=430–448 |isbn=978-0-19-753278-2 |edition=Volume Two |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6GkLEAAAQBAJ&q=khmer+empire+influence+tai&pg=PA430 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Evans et al.">{{cite journal |last1=Evans |first1=Damian |last2=Pottier |first2=Christophe |last3=Fletcher |first3=Roland |last4=Hensley |first4=Scott |last5=Tapley |first5=Ian |last6=Milne |first6=Anthony |last7=Barbetti |first7=Michael |title=A Comprehensive Archaeological Map of the World's Largest Preindustrial Settlement Complex at Angkor, Cambodia |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=4 September 2007 |volume=104 |issue=36 |pages=14277–14282 |publisher=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |doi=10.1073/pnas.0702525104 |pmid=17717084 |pmc=1964867 |bibcode=2007PNAS..10414277E |doi-access=free }}</ref>
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian civilization noted for its sculpture, architecture, literature, law and astronomy. Modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.<ref>{{cite book|author=A. Leo Oppenheim|title=Ancient Mesopotamia |url=https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/ancient_mesopotamia.pdf|year=1964|publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref>
Lalibela churches; among the most popular icon of Ethiopia, and represents the legacy of the Kingdom of Aksum, a Classical African civilization.<ref name="libraries">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iM-tASgYrDEC&q=%22classical+african+civilizations%22&pg=PA228|title=Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Libraries: Multicultural Issues|first1=Deborah A.|last1=Curry|first2=Susan Griswold|last2=Blandy|first3=Lynne M.|last3=Martin|date=February 20, 1994|publisher=Haworth Press|isbn=9781560246565|via=Google Books}}</ref>

Andrew Nikiforuk argues that "civilizations relied on shackled human muscle. It took the energy of slaves to plant crops, clothe emperors, and build cities" and considers slavery to be a common feature of pre-modern civilizations.

The red dots show every U.S. metropolitan area where over 50% non-rhotic speech has been documented among some of that area's local white speakers in the twenty-first century. Non-rhotic speech may be heard from black speakers throughout the whole country.

Wage labour

Employer in which the worker sells their labour power under a formal or informal employment contract.

Employer in which the worker sells their labour power under a formal or informal employment contract.

The red dots show every U.S. metropolitan area where over 50% non-rhotic speech has been documented among some of that area's local white speakers in the twenty-first century. Non-rhotic speech may be heard from black speakers throughout the whole country.

Civil (legal) status – the worker could for example be a free citizen, an indentured labourer, the subject of forced labour (including some prison or army labour); a worker could be assigned by the political authorities to a task, they could be a semi-slave or a serf bound to the land who is hired out part of the time. So the labour might be performed on a more or less voluntary basis, or on a more or less involuntary basis, in which there are many gradations.

Conscription

State-mandated enlistment of people in a national service, mainly a military service.

State-mandated enlistment of people in a national service, mainly a military service.

Painting depicting a battle during the Ōnin War
Ottoman janissaries
Conscription of Poles to the Russian Army in 1863 (by Aleksander Sochaczewski)
Young men registering for conscription during World War I, New York City, June 5, 1917
USSR conscripts, Moscow, 1941
Conscription in Iran
Female Israeli soldiers
A terracotta soldier with his horse, China, 210–209 BC
Conscription duty as Royal Life Guards in Copenhagen
Finnish conscripts swearing their military oath at the end of their basic training period
Evzones of the Presidential Guard in front of the Greek Parliament armed with M1 Garands
Swedish conscripts in 2008

The system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkic slave-soldiers (ghulams or mamluks) by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s.