Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslaveenslavedenslaved African AmericansAmerican slaveryAfrican slavesHistory of slavery in the United Statesslave laborAmerican slaves
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865.wikipedia
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African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Together with a more permeable historic French system that allowed certain rights to gens de couleur libres (free people of color), who were often born to white fathers and their mixed-race concubines, a far higher percentage of African Americans in Louisiana were free as of the 1830 census (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi, whose population was dominated by white Anglo-Americans).
The phrase generally refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865.
During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.

Abolitionism in the United States

abolitionistabolitionistsabolitionism
During and immediately following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery.
Abolitionism (or the Anti-Slavery Movement) in the United States of America was the movement which sought to end slavery in the United States, active both before and during the American Civil War.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
Until the Civil War, most presidents and Supreme Court justices owned people bound in slavery.
The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people.

Deep South

SouthLower SouthSouthern
The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for the labor of enslaved people, and the Southern states continued as slave societies. Driven by labor demands from new cotton plantations in the Deep South, the more northern slave states, especially Virginia and Maryland, produced and sold over 1,000,000 enslaved people, who were taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families.
Historically, it was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period.

Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment13th AmendmentThirteenth
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the country.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy.
Convinced that the institution of slavery was threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War.

Emancipation Proclamation

emancipationemancipatedabolition
Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the country.
It changed the legal status under federal law of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the Confederate states from slave to free.

1860 United States presidential election

1860 presidential election18601860 election
When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy.
The United States had become increasingly divided during the 1850s over sectional disagreements, especially regarding the extension of slavery into the territories.

Plantations in the American South

plantationplantationsplanter
Driven by labor demands from new cotton plantations in the Deep South, the more northern slave states, especially Virginia and Maryland, produced and sold over 1,000,000 enslaved people, who were taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families.
The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, fertile soils of the southeastern United States, and Native American genocide allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of enslaved Africans were held captive as slave labor and forced to produce crops to create wealth for a white elite.

Cotton gin

ginninggincotton ginning
The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for the labor of enslaved people, and the Southern states continued as slave societies.
It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased.

Confiscation Acts

Confiscation ActconfiscatedConfiscation Act in July
Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended slavery, even before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the country.
The Confiscation Acts were laws passed by the United States Congress during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South.

Charleston, South Carolina

CharlestonCharleston, SCCharles Town
In 1703, more than 42 percent of New York City households held slaves, the second-highest proportion of any city in the colonies after Charleston, South Carolina.
Charles Town played a major role in the slave trade, which laid the foundation for the city's size and wealth.

Partus sequitur ventrem

partus sequitur ventrumpartusenslaved status from mother to child
Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial and similar challenges, in 1662 the Virginia royal colony approved a law adopting the principle of partus sequitur ventrem (called partus, for short), stating that any children born in the colony would take the status of the mother.
This principle was widely adopted into the laws regarding slavery in the colonies and the following United States, eliminating financial responsibility of fathers for children born into slavery.

John Punch (slave)

John Punch
But, in 1640, a Virginia court sentenced John Punch, an African, to slavery after he attempted to flee his service.
Historians also consider this to be one of the first legal distinctions between Europeans and Africans made in the colony, and a key milestone in the development of the institution of slavery in the United States.

Mississippi

MSState of MississippiGeography of Mississippi
Together with a more permeable historic French system that allowed certain rights to gens de couleur libres (free people of color), who were often born to white fathers and their mixed-race concubines, a far higher percentage of African Americans in Louisiana were free as of the 1830 census (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi, whose population was dominated by white Anglo-Americans).
By 1860, Mississippi was the nation's top cotton producing state and enslaved persons accounted for 55% of the state population.

John Casor

In 1654, John Casor, a black indentured servant in colonial Virginia, was the first man to be declared a slave in a civil case.
John Casor (surname also recorded as Cazara and Corsala), a servant in Northampton County in the Virginia Colony, in 1655 became the first person of African descent in England's Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life as the result of a civil suit.

Mason–Dixon line

Mason-Dixon lineMason-Dixonstate line
The United States became ever more polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states, in effect divided by the Mason–Dixon line which delineated (free) Pennsylvania from (slave) Maryland.
After Pennsylvania abolished slavery in 1781, the western part of this line and the Ohio River became a border between slave and free states, with Delaware retaining slavery until the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified in 1865.

Pennsylvania

PACommonwealth of PennsylvaniaPa.
The United States became ever more polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states, in effect divided by the Mason–Dixon line which delineated (free) Pennsylvania from (slave) Maryland.
Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the US south during the colonial era.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom’s CabinTopsySimon Legree
As portrayed in Uncle Tom's Cabin (the "original" cabin was in Maryland ), "selling South" was greatly feared.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Ira Berlin

Berlin, Ira
The historian Ira Berlin noted that what he called the "charter generation" in the colonies was sometimes made up of mixed-race men (Atlantic Creoles) who were indentured servants, and whose ancestry was African and Iberian.
Berlin has focused in particular on the history of slavery in the United States.

Dunmore's Proclamation

issued a proclamationLord Dunmore's Proclamationproclamation
On November 7, 1775, Lord Dunmore issued Lord Dunmore's Proclamation which declared martial law and promised freedom for any slaves of American patriots who would leave their masters and join the royal forces.
The proclamation declared martial law and promised freedom for slaves of American revolutionaries who left their owners and joined the royal forces.

Slave breeding in the United States

slave breedingbred to produce stronger offspring during slaverybreeding slave
This route all but ended after Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821 (but see Wanderer and The replacement for the importation of slaves from abroad was increased domestic production. Virginia and Maryland had little new agricultural development, and their need for slaves was mostly for replacements for decedents. Normal reproduction more than supplied these: Virginia and Maryland had surpluses of slaves. Their tobacco farms were "worn out" and the climate was not suitable for cotton or sugar cane. The surplus was even greater because [[Slave breeding in the United States|slaves were encouraged to reproduce (though they could not marry). The white supremacist Virginian Thomas Roderick Dew wrote in 1832 that Virginia was a "negro-raising state"; i.e. Virginia "produced" slaves.
Slave breeding in the United States was the practice in slave states of the United States of slave owners to systematically force the reproduction of slaves to increase their returns.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans (from rival tribes), or captured by Europeans during village raids, were also defined as slaves.
From the time of its foundation, it offered the first classes for Native American girls, and would later offer classes for female African-American slaves and free women of color.

John C. Calhoun

John CalhounJohn Caldwell CalhounCalhoun
John C. Calhoun, in a famous speech in the Senate in 1837, declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, a good—a positive good".
He is remembered for strongly defending slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics, which he did in the context of protecting the interests of the white South when it was outnumbered by Northerners.