An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Slave auction block, Green Hill Plantation, Campbell County, Virginia, Historic American Buildings Survey
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Cliff Palace in Colorado, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
The original Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776.
Ledger of sale of 118 slaves, Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1754
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917
Prince Estabrook memorial in front of Buckman Tavern on Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts. Prince Estabrook, who was wounded in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the first black casualty of the Revolutionary War.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863 around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was the deadliest of all Civil War battles. With more than 51,000 casualties, it marked a turning point in the Union's ultimate victory in the war.
Continental soldiers at Yorktown. On the left, an African American soldier of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the most iconic images of World War II
This postage stamp, which was created at the time of the Bicentennial, honors Salem Poor, who was an enslaved African-American man who purchased his freedom, became a soldier, and rose to fame as a war hero during the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, August 1963.
Advertisement in The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 24, 1796, seeking the return of Oney Judge, a fugitive slave who had escaped from the household of George Washington.
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit, February 1985
Confederate $100 bill, 1862–63, showing happy slaves farming. John C. Calhoun is at left, Columbia at right.
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
The World Trade Center in New York City burning from the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
This portrait of Judge Samuel Sewall by John Smibert is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Massachusetts.
Topographic map of the United States.
Establishing the Northwest Territory as free soil – no slavery – by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam proved to be crucial to the outcome of the Civil War.
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
A map showing climate regions in the United States
Statue of abolitionist and crusading minister Theodore Parker in front of the Theodore Parker Church in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
Statue of prominent abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the Highland Park Bowl in Rochester, New York. Douglass was a great admirer of Theodore Parker.
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the five major U.S. territories
Benjamin Kent, Old Burying Ground, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
The headquarters of the United Nations, of which the U.S. is a founding member, has been situated in Midtown Manhattan since 1952.
Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: a scene from Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), an influential abolitionist novel
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
U.S. Government spending and revenue from 1792 to 2018
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, which assisted free blacks in moving to Africa. Liberia was a result.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., is home to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Movement of slaves between 1790 and 1860
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
Total incarceration in the United States by year (1920–2014)
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia. Painting by Eyre Crowe
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
A proportional representation of United States exports, 2019
Ashley's Sack is a cloth that recounts a slave sale separating a mother and her daughter. The sack belonged to a nine-year-old girl Ashley and was a parting gift from her mother, Rose, after Ashley had been sold. Rose filled the sack with a dress, braid of her hair, pecans, and "my love always"
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, July 1969
Slave trader's business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
Wealth inequality in the U.S. increased between 1989 and 2013.
Peter or Gordon, a whipped slave, photo taken at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863; the guilty overseer was fired.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous United States, which extends 46876 mi
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--Also exhibiting instruments of torture used to punish slaves
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Most prominent religion by state according to a 2014 Pew Research study
Slave sale, Charleston, 1856
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson, is one of the many public colleges and universities in the United States. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend these types of institutions.
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting "The Lord is My Shepherd"
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
Illustration from History of American conspiracies – a record of treason, insurrection, rebellion and c., in the United States of America, from 1760 to 1860 (1863)
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Mark Twain, American author and humorist
James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes. ca. 1862/63
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
Roast turkey, a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner, November 2021
Slaves for sale, a scene in New Orleans, 1861
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
Grammy Museum at L.A. Live in Los Angeles, April 2009
Mixed-race slave girls of predominant European ancestry, New Orleans, 1863 (see also white slave propaganda).
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California, September 2015
A slave auction, 1853
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at Rockefeller Plaza in New York City
Five-dollar banknote showing a plantation scene with enslaved people in South Carolina. Issued by the Planters Bank, Winnsboro, 1853. On display at the British Museum in London.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
"the united states of America", April 6, 1776
Eastman Johnson (American, 1824–1906). A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves (recto), ca. 1862. Oil on paperboard. Brooklyn Museum
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Mayflower II, a replica of the original Mayflower, docked at Plymouth, Massachusetts
Uncle Marian, a slave of great notoriety, of North Carolina. Daguerreotype of elderly North Carolina slave, circa 1850.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
Slaves on J. J. Smith's cotton plantation near Beaufort, South Carolina, photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan standing before their quarters in 1862
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
Escaped slaves, ca. 1862, at the headquarters of General Lafayette
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Worker during construction of the Empire State Building in New York City in 1930; the Chrysler Building can be seen in the background
Four generations of a slave family, Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Rock formations in the Grand Canyon, northern Arizona
Abraham Lincoln presents the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. Painted by Francis Bicknell Carpenter in 1864
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.
Mushroom cloud formed by the Trinity Experiment in July 1945, part of the Manhattan Project, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon in history
An industrial school set up for ex-slaves in Richmond during Reconstruction
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
Many Native Americans were enslaved during the California Genocide by American settlers.
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
Percentage of slaves in each county of the slave states in 1860
The amount of US debt, measured as a percentage of GDP from 1790 to 2018
Evolution of the enslaved population of the United States as a percentage of the population of each state, 1790–1860
Topographic map of the United States
The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73)
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799) and New Jersey (starting 1804)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, 1 Jan 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. constitution, 18 Dec 1865
Territory incorporated into the U.S. after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Köppen climate types of the U.S.
The New York City Police Department is the nation's largest municipal law enforcement agency.
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street in New York City
The United States Capitol, where Congress meets: the Senate, left; the House, right
Percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014)
The White House, residence and workplace of the U.S. President
The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.
The Supreme Court Building, where the nation's highest court sits
The United Nations headquarters has been situated along the East River in Midtown Manhattan since 1952. The United States is a founding member of the UN.
The Pentagon, near Washington, D.C., is home to the U.S. Department of Defense.
U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies
U.S. astronaut Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag on the Moon, 1969
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
The Capitol Records Building, the home of the Capitol Studios, among the cultural landmarks of Los Angeles.
The Walt Disney Company is one of the biggest American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate

The legal institution of human chattel slavery, comprising the enslavement primarily of Africans and African Americans, was prevalent in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until 1865, predominately in states of the Southern United States.

- Slavery in the United States

The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

- War of 1812

The controversy surrounding the continued practice of slavery in the Southern states in light of the ongoing abolitionist movement culminated in their secession and unification under the Confederate States of America, which fought the United States (the Union) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).

- United States

Tensions with Britain remained, however, leading to the War of 1812, which was fought to a draw.

- United States

Co-operation between the United States and Britain was not possible during the War of 1812 or the period of poor relations in the following years.

- Slavery in the United States

The British Royal Navy's blockades and raids allowed about 4,000 African Americans to escape slavery by fleeing American plantations aboard British ships.

- War of 1812

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

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Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

The American Civil War (April 12, 1861 – May 26, 1865 ; also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

The practice of slavery in the United States was one of the key political issues of the 19th century.

Regional tensions came to a head during the War of 1812, resulting in the Hartford Convention, which manifested Northern dissatisfaction with a foreign trade embargo that affected the industrial North disproportionately, the Three-Fifths Compromise, dilution of Northern power by new states, and a succession of Southern presidents.

Modern map of the United States overlapped with territory bought in the Louisiana Purchase (in white)

Louisiana Purchase

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Modern map of the United States overlapped with territory bought in the Louisiana Purchase (in white)
1804 map of "Louisiana", bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains
The future president James Monroe as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to France helped Robert R. Livingston in negotiating the Louisiana Purchase
The original treaty of the Louisiana Purchase
Transfer of Louisiana by Ford P. Kaiser for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904)
Issue of 1953, commemorating the 150th Anniversary of signing
Flag raising in the Place d'Armes of New Orleans, marking the transfer of sovereignty over French Louisiana to the United States, December 20, 1803, as depicted by Thure de Thulstrup
The Purchase was one of several territorial additions to the U.S.
Plan of Fort Madison, built in 1808 to establish U.S. control over the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase, drawn 1810
Louisiana Purchase territory shown as American Indian land in Gratiot's map of the defences of the western & north-western frontier, 1837.
Share issued by Hope & Co. in 1804 to finance the Louisiana Purchase.

The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from the French First Republic in 1803.

Its European peoples, of ethnic French, Spanish and Mexican descent, were largely Catholic; in addition, there was a large population of enslaved Africans made up of a high proportion of recent arrivals, as Spain had continued the transatlantic slave trade.

During the War of 1812, Great Britain hoped to annex all or at least portions of the Louisiana Purchase should they successfully defeat the U.S. Aided by their Indian allies, the British defeated U.S. forces in the Upper Mississippi; the U.S. abandoned Forts Osage and Madison, as well as several other U.S. forts built during the war, including Fort Johnson and Fort Shelby.

Southern United States

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Texas Hill Country
Bluegrass region, Kentucky
Glass Mountains, Oklahoma
North Carolina's Appalachian Mountains
Field of yellow wildflowers in Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana
Pearl River backwater in Mississippi
Misty Bluff along the Buffalo River, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland
Cherry River in West Virginia
The highlands of Grayson County in Southwest Virginia
1st Maryland Regiment holding the line at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, 1781
The siege of Yorktown prompted Great Britain's surrender in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1781
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, circa 1790)
Grove Plantation in Tallahassee, Florida. Known officially as the Call/Collins House at the Grove. Built circa 1840.
Horse race meeting at Jacksonville, Alabama, 1841
Historic Southern United States. The states in light red were considered "border states", and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union. This illustration depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and thus does not show West Virginia (which separated from Virginia in 1863) separately. Although members of the Five Tribes in Indian Territory (today part of Oklahoma) aligned themselves with the Confederacy, the region is not shaded because at the time it was a territory, not a state.
Atlanta's railroad roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
An African American family, photo-graphed by O'Pierre Havens, circa 1868
A Home on the Mississippi, by Currier and Ives, 1871
Child laborers in Bluffton, South Carolina, 1913
An illustration from Houston: Where Seventeen Railroads Meet the Sea, 1913
Photo of sharecropper family in Walker County, Alabama, circa 1937
Naval Air Station Miami, circa 1942–43
Street musicians in Maynardville, Tennessee, photographed in 1935
Alabama plays Texas in American football for the 2010 BCS National Championship Game
Houston vs Texas face-off during the 2013 Lone Star Series in the American League West division of Major League Baseball
The start of the 2015 Daytona 500, the biggest race in NASCAR, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida
A rally against school integration in Little Rock, 1959.
U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Bill Clinton, newly elected Governor of Arkansas speaking with Jimmy Carter in 1978. Carter and Clinton were both Southern Democrats and elected to the presidencies in 1976 and 1992.
Racial segregation was required by state laws in the South and other U.S. states until 1964.
Dallas
Houston
Washington, D.C.
Miami
Atlanta
Tampa
Charlotte
Nashville
Louisville
New Orleans
University of Texas at Austin
Virginia Tech
University of Miami
Rice University

The Southern United States (sometimes Dixie, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, the Southland, or simply the South) is a geographic and cultural region of the United States of America.

Aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South were influenced by the institution of slave labor, especially in the Deep South and coastal plain areas, from the early 1600s to mid-1800s.

They were defeated by settlers in a series of wars ending in the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars, and most were removed west to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma and Kansas), but large numbers of Native Americans managed to stay behind by blending into the surrounding society.