A report on Sleep

A male and female lion sleeping on a flat plain
"The Awakening", an illustration to writing by Leo Tolstoy
The human "biological clock"
Man napping in San Cristobal, Peru
The main health effects of sleep deprivation, indicating impairment of normal maintenance by sleep
Bronze statue of Eros sleeping, 3rd century BC–early 1st century AD
World War II poster issued by the US government
Dreams often feel like waking life, yet with added surrealism.
The Land of Cockaigne by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1567
Medieval manuscript illumination from the Menologion of Basil II (985 AD), showing the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus sleeping in their cave
The Sentry (1654) by Carel Fabritius
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1799) by Francisco Goya
Diana and Endymion ({{circa}} 1822) by Jérôme-Martin Langlois
The Second Class Carriage (1864) by Honoré Daumier
Sleep and his Half-brother Death (1874) by John William Waterhouse
Lullaby (1875) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Taking a Rest (1882) by Ilya Repin
The Victory of Faith (1891) by Saint George Hare
Zwei schlafende Mädchen auf der Ofenbank (1895) by Albert Anker
Flaming June ({{circa}} 1895) by Frederic Leighton
Noon – Rest from Work (1890) by Vincent van Gogh (after Millet)
Sleeping Jaguar, by Paul Klimsch
Sleeping Girl on a Wooden Bench by Albert Anker
Chrapek (Snorer), Wrocław's dwarfs
Sleeping Girl, Domenico Fetti, circa 1615.

Naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced muscle activity and inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles during rapid eye movement sleep, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

- Sleep
A male and female lion sleeping on a flat plain

57 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century

Insomnia

12 links

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century
Potential complications of insomnia.
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.
Disability-adjusted life year for insomnia per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
no data
less than 25
25–30.25
30.25–36
36–41.5
41.5–47
47–52.5
52.5–58
58–63.5
63.5–69
69–74.5
74.5–80
more than 80

Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

Sample hypnogram (electroencephalogram of sleep) showing sleep cycles characterized by increasing paradoxical (REM) sleep.

Rapid eye movement sleep

8 links

Sample hypnogram (electroencephalogram of sleep) showing sleep cycles characterized by increasing paradoxical (REM) sleep.
EEG of a mouse that shows REM sleep being characterized by prominent theta-rhythm
Polysomnographic record of REM Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box. Eye movement highlighted by red line.

Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep or REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, characterized by random rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied by low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.

Obstructive sleep apnea

Sleep apnea

6 links

Obstructive sleep apnea
Screenshot of a PSG system showing an obstructive apnea.
No airway obstruction during sleep.
Airway obstruction during sleep.
Screenshot of a PSG system showing a central apnea.
Person using a CPAP mask, covering only the nose
CPAP machine with two models of masks
Illustration of surgery on the mouth and throat.
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. A) pre-operative, B) original UPPP, C) modified UPPP, and D) minimal UPPP.

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder in which pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep occur more often than normal.

Stage N1 Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box.

Non-rapid eye movement sleep

5 links

Stage N1 Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box.
Stage N2 Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box. Sleep spindles highlighted by red line.
Stage 3 Sleep. EEG highlighted by red box.

Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), also known as quiescent sleep, is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.

Pediatric polysomnography

Sleep disorder

5 links

Pediatric polysomnography
Sign with text: Sömnförsök pågår (Sleep study in progress), room for sleep studies in NÄL hospital, Sweden.

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of an individual's sleep patterns.

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Sleep deprivation

6 links

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Main health effects of sleep deprivation.

Sleep deprivation, also known as sleep insufficiency or sleeplessness, is the condition of not having adequate duration and/or quality of sleep to support decent alertness, performance, and health.

Polysomnographic record of REM sleep. Eye movements highlighted by red rectangle.

Polysomnography

5 links

Polysomnographic record of REM sleep. Eye movements highlighted by red rectangle.
Connections of polysomnography wires on an adult patient
Use of equipment for overnight diagnosis in hospitalization records
Pediatric polysomnography patient
Adult patient, equipped for ambulatory diagnosis
Electrophysiological recordings of stage 3 sleep

Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parameter study of sleep and a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.

John Everett Millais, The Somnambulist, 1871

Sleepwalking

3 links

John Everett Millais, The Somnambulist, 1871
Amina, the somnabuliste, at the mill.
Mary Hoare's painting Lady Macbeth, Sleepwalking
"The Boston Tragedy," the murder of Maria Bickford, 1846; Tirrell was acquitted because of sleepwalking. National Police Gazette, 1846

Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.

A Dream of a Girl Before a Sunrise c. 1830–33 by Karl Bryullov (1799–1852)

Dream

2 links

A Dream of a Girl Before a Sunrise c. 1830–33 by Karl Bryullov (1799–1852)
Usha Dreaming Aniruddha (oleographic print) Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)
A soldier dreams: the trenches of WWI. Jan Styka (1858–1925).
The Knight's Dream, 1655, by Antonio de Pereda
Grandmother and Granddaughter Dream (1839 or 1840). Taras Shevchenko
Jacob's dream of a ladder of angels, c. 1690. Michael Willmann
Dreaming of the Tiger Spring (虎跑夢泉) Statue at Hupao Spring (Hupaomengquan) in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dream c. 1896–1902. Jacques Joseph Tissot (1836–1902).
The cheshire cat, John Tenniel (1820–1914), illustration in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1866 edition.
Raphael's dream (1821). Johannes Riepenhausen and Franz Riepenhausen.
Dante Meditating, 1852, by Joseph Noel Paton.
Woman having a nightmare. Jean-Pierre Simon (1764–1810 or 1813).
Nicolas Dipre. Le songe de Jacob. c.1500 Avignon, Petit Palais.
José de Ribera (1591–1652). El sueño de Jacob, from Prado in Google Earth
Raphael. Jacob's Dream (1518)
Rembrandt. Dream of Joseph (1645)
Anton Raphael Mengs. Traum des Hl. Joseph (1773 or 1774)

A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

Sleep diary layout example

Sleep medicine

2 links

Sleep diary layout example
Polysomnography (PSG) is a multi-parametric test used as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Pediatric polysomnography
CPAP (positive airway pressure) machine
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.