Sleep deprivation

deprived of sleepsleep deprivedlack of sleepsleep-deprivedall-nighterschronic sleep deprivationdeprivationdeprivation of sleepgoing without sleepkept awake
Sleep deprivation, also known as insufficient sleep, is the condition of not having enough sleep.wikipedia
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Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance

affects the brain and cognitive functioncognitive performance
It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function.
It has been estimated that over 20% of adults suffer from some form of sleep deprivation.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertionfeeling tired
A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain.
The onset of muscle fatigue during physical activity is gradual, and depends upon an individual's level of physical fitness, and also upon other factors, such as sleep deprivation and overall health.

Microsleep

micro-sleepmicro-sleepsMicrosleeps
Complete absence of sleep over long periods is not frequent in humans (unless they suffer from fatal familial insomnia or specific issues caused by surgery); it appears that brief microsleeps cannot be avoided.
MSs often occur as a result of sleep deprivation, though normal non-sleep deprived individuals can also experience MSs during monotonous tasks.

Periorbital puffiness

periorbital edemabaggy eyesbaggy-eyed
periorbital puffiness, commonly known as "bags under eyes" or eye bags
Sleep deprivation – Interrupted sleep cycles are common causes of eye puffiness.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Sleep deprivation, also known as insufficient sleep, is the condition of not having enough sleep.
Induced or perceived lack of sleep is called sleep deprivation.

Nystagmus

nystagmus, pathologicinvoluntary eye movementsnystagmus, congenital
nystagmus (rapid involuntary rhythmic eye movement)
Nystagmus may be caused by congenital disorder or sleep deprivation, acquired or central nervous system disorders, toxicity, pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, or rotational movement.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
psychosis
These include mental illness, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, sleep deprivation, some medical conditions, certain medications, and drugs such as alcohol or cannabis.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
seizures
Unprovoked seizures may be triggered by stress or sleep deprivation.

Stye

hordeolumstyesexternal hordeolum
stye
Styes can be triggered by poor nutrition, sleep deprivation, lack of hygiene, lack of water, and rubbing of the eyes.

Fatigue and sleep loss during spaceflight

performance errors and decreased cognitive abilitysleep disturbances
Astronauts have reported performance errors and decreased cognitive ability during periods of extended working hours and wakefulness as well as due to sleep loss caused by circadian rhythm disruption and environmental factors.
Astronauts and ground crews frequently suffer from the effects of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disruption.

Hypnagogia

hypnagogichypnagogic hallucinationshypnagogic state
hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during falling asleep and waking, which are entirely normal
Microsleep (short episodes of immediate sleep onset) may intrude into wakefulness at any time in the wakefulness-sleep cycle, due to sleep deprivation and other conditions, resulting in impaired cognition and even amnesia.

Sleep debt

sleep deficitCatch Up On Sleepinsufficient sleep
This study hypothesizes that the moderate chronic sleep debt associated with habitual short sleep is associated with increased appetite and energy expenditure with the equation tipped towards food intake rather than expenditure in societies where high-calorie food is freely available.
There are two kinds of sleep debt: the results of partial sleep deprivation and total sleep deprivation.

Hours of service

driver activity logsfederal DOT regulationsLog book of a commercial motor vehicle operator's hours of service
Rules concerning minimum break lengths, maximum shift lengths and minimum time between shifts are common in the driving regulations used in different countries and regions, such as the drivers' working hours regulations in the European Union and hours of service regulations in the United States.
The FMCSA identifies three main factors in driver fatigue: Circadian rhythm effects, sleep deprivation and cumulative fatigue effects, and industrial or "time-on-task" fatigue.

Abu Zubaydah

Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu ZubaydahAbu-Zubaydah
They first described 10 techniques used in the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah, described as a terrorist logistics specialist, including sleep deprivation.
During his time in CIA custody, Zubaydah was extensively interrogated; he was water-boarded 83 times and subjected to numerous other torture techniques including forced nudity, sleep deprivation, confinement in small dark boxes, deprivation of solid food, stress positions, and physical assaults.

Five techniques

deep-Interrogationfive interrogation techniquesinterrogation techniques
Sleep deprivation was one of the five techniques used by the British government in the 1970s.
They have been defined as prolonged wall-standing, hooding, subjection to noise, deprivation of sleep, and deprivation of food and drink.

Local sleep

In a process known as local sleep, specific localized brain regions went into periods of short (~80 ms) but frequent (~40/min) NREM-like states.
Local sleep can be induced by sustained and intense periods of activation of a particular brain region, especially when coupled with sleep deprivation (a condition colloquially called "sleep drunk"), although certain cortical regions of mice have been demonstrated to enter local sleep for very brief amounts of time without any immediate trigger.

Sleep apnea

sleep apnoeaobstructive sleep apneasleep apnea syndromes
Other scientists hold that the physical discomfort of obesity and related problems, such as sleep apnea, reduce an individual's chances of getting a good night's sleep.
Mild occasional sleep apnea, such as many people experience during an upper respiratory infection, may not be significant, but chronic severe obstructive sleep apnea requires treatment to prevent low blood oxygen (hypoxemia), sleep deprivation, and other complications.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
The study also found that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation may alleviate clinical depression because it mimics selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
For nonseasonal depression, where light was used mostly in combination with antidepressants or wake therapy, a moderate effect was found, with response better than control treatment in high-quality studies, in studies that applied morning light treatment, and with people who respond to total or partial sleep deprivation.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
Sleep deprivation was found to enhance activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (which controls reactions to stress and regulates body functions such as digestion, the immune system, mood, sex, or energy usage) while suppressing growth hormones.
The immune system is affected by sleep and rest, and sleep deprivation is detrimental to immune function.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia

cognitive behavioural therapy for insomniacounselingsleep restriction therapy
Some common sleep disorders have been shown to respond to cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia.
Restricting sleep has also been shown to be an effective but usually temporary measure for treating depression.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
increased stress hormone levels
Sleep deprivation

Abuse

abusiveabuse of officemaltreatment
Sleep deprivation can be used to disorientate abuse victims to help set them up for abusive control.
Psychological abuse: taunting, sleep deprivation, or other forms of psychological abuse, occasionally white noise

Biphasic and polyphasic sleep

polyphasic sleepbimodal sleepbiphasic or polyphasic sleep
Polyphasic sleep
However, researchers such as Piotr Woźniak warn that such forms of sleep deprivation are not healthy.

Steven G. Bradbury

Memos signed by Steven G. Bradbury in May 2005 claimed that forced sleep deprivation for up to 180 hours (7 1⁄2 days) by shackling a diapered prisoner to the ceiling did not constitute torture, nor did the combination of multiple interrogation methods (including sleep deprivation) constitute torture under United States law.
In May 2005, in response to requests from the CIA, Bradbury authored the "2005 Bradbury Memo" confirming that 13 so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" did not constitute torture, including waterboarding, nudity, walling, stress positions, slapping or striking a prisoner, exposure to extreme temperatures, dousing with cold water, and forced sleep deprivation of up to 180 hours (7 1⁄2 days).

Hallucination

hallucinationshallucinatehallucinating
Despite the extreme insomnia, psychological investigation showed no sign of cognitive deficits, except for some hallucinations.
Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is falling asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Hallucinations can be associated with drug use (particularly deliriants), sleep deprivation, psychosis, neurological disorders, and delirium tremens.