Slovak language

SlovakSlovakianSlovak-languagesknative languagesk.sloSlovak: SlovakCzech
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).wikipedia
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Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.

West Slavic languages

West SlavicWestWest Slavic language
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
They include Polish, Czech, Slovak, Silesian, Kashubian, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian.

Polish language

Polishplpol.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script . Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014).
The official language is Slovak.

Vojvodina

Autonomous Province of VojvodinaAP VojvodinaSerbia
Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina ; ; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság ; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slavic (from Proto-Slavic), attested from the 9th century AD (possibly earlier), earliest texts in Old Church Slavonic. Slavic languages include Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Montenegrin, Macedonian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovenian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn.

Slovene language

SloveneSlovenianSlovene-language
Slovak should not be confused with Slovene, or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina), the main language of Slovenia.
Slovene and Slovak are the only two modern Slavic languages whose names for themselves literally mean "Slavic" (slověnьskъ in old Slavonic).

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Adjectives, pronouns and numerals agree in person, gender and case with the noun to which they refer.
Languages such as Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, Latin, Armenian, Hungarian, Hindi, Tibetan, Assamese, Czech, Slovak, Turkish, Tamil, Romanian, Russian, Polish, Croatian, Serbian, Estonian, Finnish, Icelandic, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Basque and most Caucasian languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners all inflecting (usually by means of different suffixes) to indicate their case.

Hungary

🇭🇺HungarianHUN
Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.
English (1,589,180 speakers, 16.0%), and German (1,111,997 speakers, 11.2%) are the most widely spoken foreign languages, while there are several recognized minority languages in Hungary (Armenian, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Romanian, Romani, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, and Ukrainian).

Eastern Slovak dialects

Eastern SlovakEast Slovakeastern slovak dialect
Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish, Ruthenian and Ukrainian and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.
Eastern Slovak or Eastern Slovak dialects (východoslovenské nárečia, východniarčina), are dialects of the Slovak language spoken natively in the historical regions of Spiš, Šariš, Zemplín and Abov, in the east of Slovakia.

Croatia

🇭🇷CroatianRepublic of Croatia
Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.
Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian, and Slovak.

Transgressive (linguistics)

transgressivepresent transgressive
The transgressive (=(while/by) ...ing) is formed using the suffixes -úc / -uc / -iac/-ac.
The transgressive (transgresiv or přechodník) is a form of the verb in the Czech and Slovak languages.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish, Ruthenian and Ukrainian and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.
Czech: Slovak (significantly)

Carpathian Mountains

CarpathiansCarpathianSłonne Mountain
Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area.
In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech, Polish and Slovak and Карпати (Karpaty) in Ukrainian, Karpati or Карпати in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, and Kárpátok in Hungarian.

Hont County

Hont
Central Slovak dialects (in Liptov, Orava, Turiec, Tekov, Hont, Novohrad, Gemer and the historic Zvolen county)
Hont (-Hungarian and Slovak and German, in Latin: Honthum, in Hungarian also: Honth) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary and then shortly of Czechoslovakia.

Liptov

Liptó
Central Slovak dialects (in Liptov, Orava, Turiec, Tekov, Hont, Novohrad, Gemer and the historic Zvolen county)
The form Ľuptov has been preserved in Orava and in a frequent Slovak surname Ľupták (Liptovian).

Austria

🇦🇹AUTAustrian
Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine, Norway and many other countries worldwide.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanIndo-EuropeanPIE
The Slovak language is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European.
Baltic Latvian and Lithuanian; Slavic Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Slovenian, Macedonian

Nitra

NyitraNitra, SlovakiaLitra
Western Slovak dialects (in remaining Slovakia: Kysuce, Trenčín, Trnava, Nitra, Záhorie)
The same root is still present in the Slovak verb nietiť (to make a fire), but also in other Indo-European languages like Latin nitere (to burn) or in German schneiden (to cut).

Trenčín

TrencsénLaugaricioTrenčín, Czechoslovakia
Western Slovak dialects (in remaining Slovakia: Kysuce, Trenčín, Trnava, Nitra, Záhorie)
The name is probably derived from a personal name Trnka/Trenka (Slovak/Slavic - Blackthorn) with a possessive suffix -ín.

Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-language
The highest number of borrowings in the old Slovak vocabulary come from Latin, German, Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Greek (in that order).
Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as in Finnish and the neighbouring Slovak and Czech.

Future tense

futureFUTFuture indicative
One future tense exists. For imperfective verbs, it is formed analytically, for perfective verbs it is identical with the present tense. Some examples are as follows:
In the Slovak language, the future tense is formed only with verbs with imperfective grammatical aspect, with the auxiliary verb byť (to be) in future tense:

Slovak declension

fifteen noun declension classesnoun declension
Slovak declension
The Slovak language, like most Slavic languages and Latin, is an inflected language, meaning that the endings (and sometimes also the stems) of most words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals) change depending on the given combination of the grammatical gender, the grammatical number and the grammatical case of the particular word in the particular sentence:

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Adjectives, pronouns and numerals agree in person, gender and case with the noun to which they refer.
However, some of the languages, including Russian, Czech, Slovak and Polish, also make certain additional grammatical distinctions between animate and inanimate nouns: Polish in the plural, and Russian in the accusative case, differentiate between human and non-human nouns.

Slovak phonology

Slovak phonology
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.