Slovene language

SloveneSlovenianSlovenian languageSlovene-languageSlov.slslvstandard SloveneSlovene speakersSlovene-speaking
Slovene ( or ) or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is a South Slavic language spoken by the Slovenes.wikipedia
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Slovenia

SloveneSlovenianRepublic of Slovenia
It is spoken by about 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia, where it is the only official language.
The South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country.

Slovenes

SloveneSlovenianSlovenians
Slovene ( or ) or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is a South Slavic language spoken by the Slovenes.
Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovene as their native language.

Primož Trubar

Primož Trubar DayPrimoz TrubarTrubar
The Lower Carniolan dialect group was the dialect used by Primož Trubar while he also used the Slovene language as spoken in Ljubljana, since he lived in the city for more than 20 years. The most prominent authors from this period are Primož Trubar, who wrote the first books in Slovene; Adam Bohorič, the author of the first Slovene grammar; and Jurij Dalmatin, who translated the entire Bible into Slovene.
Primož Trubar or Primus Truber (1508 – 28 June 1586) was a Slovenian Protestant Reformer of the Lutheran tradition, mostly known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Duchy of Carniola, and for consolidating the Slovene language.

Slovene Lands

SloveneSlovene-speaking territoriesSlovene ethnic territory
Unstandardized dialects are more preserved in regions of the Slovene Lands where compulsory schooling was in languages other than Standard Slovene, as was the case with the Carinthian Slovenes in Austria, and the Slovene minority in Italy.
Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands (Slovenske dežele or in short Slovensko) is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene.

Resian dialect

ResianResia(n) dialect
For example, the Resian and Torre (Ter) dialects in the Italian Province of Udine differ most from other Slovene dialects.
The Resian dialect (self-designation Rozajanski langač, or lengač, rezijansko narečje, rezijanščina) is a distinct dialect of Slovene spoken in the Resia Valley, Province of Udine, Italy, close to the border with Slovenia.

Lower Carniolan dialect group

Lower CarniolanLower Carniolan dialectsLower Carniolan dialect
The Lower Carniolan dialect group was the dialect used by Primož Trubar while he also used the Slovene language as spoken in Ljubljana, since he lived in the city for more than 20 years. Standard Slovene is the national standard language that was formed in the 18th and 19th century, based on Upper and Lower Carniolan dialect groups, more specifically on language of Ljubljana and its adjacent areas.
The Lower Carniolan dialect group (dolenjska narečna skupina ) is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene.

Slovene minority in Italy

Slovene minoritySlovenesSlovene
Unstandardized dialects are more preserved in regions of the Slovene Lands where compulsory schooling was in languages other than Standard Slovene, as was the case with the Carinthian Slovenes in Austria, and the Slovene minority in Italy.
Since 1945, the Slovenes in Italy have enjoyed partial cultural autonomy, including an education system in Slovene.

Upper Carniolan dialect group

Upper CarniolanUpperUpper Carniolan dialect
Standard Slovene is the national standard language that was formed in the 18th and 19th century, based on Upper and Lower Carniolan dialect groups, more specifically on language of Ljubljana and its adjacent areas. The Upper dialect was also used by most authors during the language revival of the 18th and early 19th century, and was also the language spoken by France Prešeren, the latter, as was the case with most of Slovene writers and poets, lived and worked in Ljubljana, which speech ultimately grew closer to the Upper Carniolan dialect group.
The Upper Carniolan dialect group (gorenjska narečna skupina ) is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene.

Pitch-accent language

pitch accentpitchaccent
The distinctive characteristics of Slovene are dual grammatical number, two accentual norms (one characterized by pitch accent), and abundant inflection (a trait shared with many Slavic languages).
Languages that have been described as pitch-accent languages include most dialects of Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Baltic languages, Ancient Greek, Vedic Sanskrit, Turkish, Japanese, Norwegian, Swedish, Western Basque, Yaqui, certain dialects of Korean, and Shanghainese.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European UnionLanguages of the EU
As Slovenia is part of the European Union, Slovene is also one of its 24 official and working languages.
In addition, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Slovak, and Slovene are official languages in multiple EU countries at the regional level.

France Prešeren

PrešerenFrance Ksaver PrešerenFrance Preseren
The Upper dialect was also used by most authors during the language revival of the 18th and early 19th century, and was also the language spoken by France Prešeren, the latter, as was the case with most of Slovene writers and poets, lived and worked in Ljubljana, which speech ultimately grew closer to the Upper Carniolan dialect group.
Although he wrote in Slovene, some poems were also written in German.

Ljubljana

Ljubljana, SloveniaLaibachLjubjana
Standard Slovene is the national standard language that was formed in the 18th and 19th century, based on Upper and Lower Carniolan dialect groups, more specifically on language of Ljubljana and its adjacent areas. It was the speech of Ljubljana that Trubar took as a foundation of what later became standard Slovenian language, with small addition of his native speech, that is Lower Carniolan dialect Trubar's choice was later adopted also by other Protestant writers in the 16th century, and ultimately led to a formation of more standard language.
In the 16th century, the population of Ljubljana numbered 5,000, 70% of whom spoke Slovene as their first language, with most of the rest using German.

Dual (grammatical number)

dualdual numberdual form
The distinctive characteristics of Slovene are dual grammatical number, two accentual norms (one characterized by pitch accent), and abundant inflection (a trait shared with many Slavic languages).
It can still be found in a few modern Indo-European languages such as Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Lithuanian, Slovene, and Sorbian languages.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, together with Serbo-Croatian.
Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Bulgarian and Macedonian (eastern dialects of the South group), and Serbo-Croatian and Slovene (western dialects of the South group).

Kajkavian

Kajkavian dialectKajkavian languageKajkavian (''kajkavski'')
It is close to the Chakavian and especially Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian, but further from the Shtokavian dialect, the basis for the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard languages.
There are differing opinions over whether Kajkavian is best considered a dialect of Croatian (standardized or vernacular) or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only partially mutually intelligible with other dialects and bears more similarities to Slovene (especially the Prekmurje dialect) than to the prestige Shtokavian dialect (which forms the basis of the national normative standards of Serbo-Croatian) in terms of phonology and vocabulary.

Lower Carniolan dialect

It was the speech of Ljubljana that Trubar took as a foundation of what later became standard Slovenian language, with small addition of his native speech, that is Lower Carniolan dialect Trubar's choice was later adopted also by other Protestant writers in the 16th century, and ultimately led to a formation of more standard language.
It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was the original foundation for standard Slovene along with the Ljubljana urban dialect.

Istria

Istrian peninsulaIstrianHistria
Between the 9th and 12th century, proto-Slovene spread into northern Istria and in the areas around Trieste.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria;, Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), Ίστρια (Ancient Greek), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.

Freising manuscripts

Freising FragmentsFreising monuments
The earliest known examples of a distinct, written dialect possibly connected to Slovene are from the Freising manuscripts, known in Slovene as Brižinski spomeniki.
The Freising manuscripts (also Freising folia, Freising fragments, or Freising monuments; Freisinger Denkmäler, Monumenta Frisingensia, Brižinski spomeniki or Brižinski rokopisi) are the first Latin-script continuous text in a Slavic language and "the oldest document in Slovene".

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
As Slovenia is part of the European Union, Slovene is also one of its 24 official and working languages.
The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

Klagenfurt

Klagenfurt am WörtherseeKlagenfurt, AustriaBallspielhalle Klagenfurt-Viktring
By the 15th century, most of the northern areas were gradually Germanized: the northern border of the Slovene-speaking territory stabilized on the line going from north of Klagenfurt to south of Villach and east of Hermagor in Carinthia, while in Styria it was pretty much identical with the current Austrian-Slovenian border.
Thus they assumed that Klagenfurt's name was a translation made by the German settlers of the original Slovene name of the neighbouring wetland.

Trieste

TriestTrieste, ItalyTergeste
Between the 9th and 12th century, proto-Slovene spread into northern Istria and in the areas around Trieste.
The original pre-Roman name of the city, Tergeste, with the -est- suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market" (whence Slovenian, Serbian, and Croatian trg, tržnica, Polish targ and the Scandinavian borrowing torg).

Vienna

Vienna, AustriaWienViennese
The first printed Slovene words, stara pravda (meaning 'old justice' or 'old laws'), appeared in 1515 in Vienna in a poem of the German mercenaries who suppressed the Slovene peasant revolt: the term was presented as the peasants' motto and battle cry.
Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands.

Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian languageSerbo-CroatSerbo-Croato-Slovenian
Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, together with Serbo-Croatian.
Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian (which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest).

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, together with Serbo-Croatian.

Jurij Dalmatin

Dalmatin
The most prominent authors from this period are Primož Trubar, who wrote the first books in Slovene; Adam Bohorič, the author of the first Slovene grammar; and Jurij Dalmatin, who translated the entire Bible into Slovene.
He translated the complete Bible into Slovene.