Slug (projectile)

Trajectories of three objects thrown at the same angle (70°). The black object does not experience any form of drag and moves along a parabola. The blue object experiences Stokes' drag, and the green object Newtonian drag.

Term used for a bulky solid ballistic projectile.

- Slug (projectile)

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Air gun

Gun that fires projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are mechanically pressurized without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which pressurizes gases chemically via oxidation of combustible propellants that generates propulsive energy by breaking molecular bonds.

A collection of spring-piston air rifles
Break-barrel air rifles
Kunitomo air gun developed by the Japanese inventor Kunitomo Ikkansai,
Kunitomo air gun trigger mechanism
Variety of different types & models of spring piston & gas ram air guns
An example of a Benelli Kite pre-charged pneumatic air pistol, as used in 10 metre air pistol ISSF shooting events
Airforce Condor, one of the most powerful PCP air rifles on the market
CO2 pistol and disposable Powerlet cylinders
A Pure Energy N2 tank with a remote line attached
Walther CP 88 CO2 pistol with adapted silencer
Crossman 2240 CO2 one shot pistol, (.22 pellet caliber)
Wadcutter or Flathead pellets
A .177 (4.5mm) caliber "Wadcutter" pellet next to a stick of chewing gum
Steel BBs coated with copper and nickel
Darts for an air gun

Both types typically propel metallic projectiles that are either diabolo-shaped pellets or spherical shots called BBs, although in recent years Minié ball-shaped cylindro-conoidal projectiles called slugs are gaining more popularity.

Rifling

Machining helical grooves into the internal surface of a gun's barrel for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting to stabilize the projectile longitudinally by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy over smoothbore designs.

Conventional rifling of a 90 mm M75 cannon (production year 1891, Austria-Hungary)
Rifling of a 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 tank gun.
Traditional rifling of a 9 mm handgun barrel.
Conventional rifling (left) and polygonal rifling (right). Both types of rifling use a spiraling pattern.
The spiraling pattern (here with polygonal rifling) is shown.
Rifling in a French 19th century cannon.
57-N-231 standard 7.62×39mm military bullets with steel core - the one on the left is unfired, the one on the right is fired, with the rifling grooves visible. Notice the copper wash scraped off and the steel jacket is exposed on the groove marks.
Three recovered 7.62×51mm NATO bullets (next to an unfired cartridge), showing rifling marks imparting anti-clockwise spin
Russian 122 mm shrapnel shell (which has been fired) showing rifling marks on the copper alloy driving band around its base, indicating clockwise spin
Cannonball equipped with winglets for rifled cannons circa 1860
Ogival shell of the La Hitte system, 1858, designed to engage with clockwise rifling
A Parrott rifle, used by both Confederate and Union forces in the American Civil War.

The process was finished off by casting a slug of molten lead into the barrel, withdrawing it and using it with a paste of emery and oil to smooth the bore.

Pellet (air gun)

Non-spherical projectile designed to be shot from an air gun, and an airgun that shoots such pellets is commonly known as a pellet gun.

Hornet Cal. 4,5mm (.177). Special pellet for hunting purposes. Lead with a point of brass. Extremely high penetrating power
Hunter Impact Cal. 4,5mm (.177). Pellet for hunting purposes. Lead with a point of synthetic polymers
Eisenherz Cal. 4,5mm (.177). Plastic-coated pellet with a core of hard metal. For hunting purposes.
Plastic-coated pellets with a pointed steel core: Highest possible penetration power. Top: For rifles, bottom: for CO2-pistols with a revolver magazine
A H&N Final Match Pistol 4.5 mm (.177 in) match diabolo pellet

Recently, some manufacturers also have introduced the more cylindro-conoidally shaped "slug" pellets for some of the more powerful modern PCP air rifles.

Water hammer

Pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid in motion, usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas is forced to stop or change direction suddenly; a momentum change.

Effect of a pressure surge on a float gauge
Expansion joints on a steam line that have been destroyed by steam hammer
Typical pressure wave caused by closing a valve in a pipeline

The rest of the steam forces this liquid water along the pipe, forming a "slug", and hurls this at high velocity into a pipe fitting, creating a loud hammering noise and greatly stressing the pipe.

Ricochet

Rebound, bounce, or skip off a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile.

Tracer elements separating from M2 Browning .50 BMG machine gun rounds after hitting the target or backstop.
The roughened abrasions and asymmetrical jacket damage were caused when this recovered bullet ricocheted from a hard, granular surface.

Buckshot and shotgun slugs have similarly high ricochet probability, but ricochet range of smaller shot is lower than intact rifle or handgun bullet ricochets.

Muzzle velocity

A projectile being fired from an artillery piece

Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile (bullet, pellet, slug, ball/shots or shell) with respect to the muzzle at the moment it leaves the end of a gun's barrel (i.e. the muzzle).

Balthasar Gérard

The assassin of the Dutch revolt's leader, William the Silent of the House of Orange (William the Silent, and later known as the "Father of the Fatherland").

Portrait of Gérard, c. 16th century. Author unknown. Stedelijk Museum het Prinsenhof, Delft
Balthasar Gérard shooting William
The bullet holes are still visible at the Prinsenhof (Delft)
Reward letter of King Philip II of Spain to the family of Balthasar Gerards, 1590

The halberdier unsuspectingly arranged from the Prince of Orange himself a gift of 50 crowns for Gérard, who the following morning purchased a pair of pistols from a soldier, haggling the price for a long time because the soldier could not supply the particular chopped bullets or slugs he wanted.

Gauge (firearms)

Unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.

From left to right; a .45 ACP, a .410 bore shotshell, a 20-gauge shotshell, and a 12-gauge shotshell
left-to-right: .410 bore, 28ga, 20ga, and 12ga.
Garden Gun calibers: 9mm Flobert shot, 9mm Flobert shot, .22 Long Rifle shot, .22 Long Rifle, .22 Long Rifle shot, .22 CB Short, and 9mm Flobert BB cap
A 10-gauge (3 1⁄2″) shotgun shell shown next to a United States quarter
Portrait of Frederick Courteney Selous with his 4 bore single-shot Boer rifle and African hunting regalia, 1876

Firing slugs from overbored barrels can result in very inconsistent accuracy, as the slug may be incapable of obturating to fill the oversized bore.

M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System

Shotgun configured as an underbarrel ancillary weapon attachment mounted onto the handguard of a service rifle, usually the M16/M4 family of United States military, essentially making the host weapon a combination gun.

The M26-MASS configured under the M4 carbine.
Soldier with M26-MASS configured underbarrel to M16/M4.
Left side of M26-MASS showing bolt handle.
M26-MASS Stand-alone configuration

These would provide soldiers with additional capabilities, such as: door breaching using special slugs, very short-range increased lethality using 00 buckshot, and less-lethal capabilities using teargas shells, rubber slugs, rubber pellets, or other non-lethal rounds.

Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

Located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.

Harper's Weekly illustration of U.S. Marines attacking John Brown's "Fort"
John Brown's Fort today
Storer College postcard (1910)
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Overview of the Lower Town, looking toward Maryland Heights
Recreation of a 19th-century gun-making shop
Harpers Ferry entry sign
High Street, looking north (downhill) towards the Potomac River and Maryland
Shenandoah Street and Lower Town, looking south (uphill) towards West Virginia
White Hall Tavern
White Hall Tavern
St. Peter's Catholic Church
The Dry Goods Store
Wetlands Exhibit
The CSX railroad bridge crosses the Potomac River on the edge of the park
View from Jefferson Rock
View from Maryland Heights

Subsequently, the development of the modern bullet to replace the round lead slug was achieved by James H. Burton and this improvement was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1855.