Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariolasmallpox virussmallpox eradicationvariola viruseradication of smallpoxvariola majorblack poxcampaign to eradicate smallpox
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, variola major and variola minor.wikipedia
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Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
Prevention was by the smallpox vaccine. The earliest procedure used to prevent smallpox was inoculation (known as variolation after the introduction of smallpox vaccine to avoid possible confusion), which likely occurred in India, Africa, and China well before the practice arrived in Europe. ACAM2000 is a smallpox vaccine developed by Acambis.
He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox. Vaccination immunity declined over time and was probably lost within thirty years.
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.

Alastrim

Variola minor
Variola minor was a less common presentation, and a much less severe disease, with historical death rates of 1 percent or less.
Alastrim, also known as variola minor, was the milder strain of the variola virus that caused smallpox.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.
During this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health.

Rinderpest

cattle plaguerinderpest virusRinderpest morbillivirus
Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011.
In June 2011, the United Nations FAO confirmed the disease was eradicated, making rinderpest only the second disease in history to be fully wiped out (outside laboratory stocks), following smallpox.

Enanthem

enanthema
By days 12–15 the first visible lesions – small reddish spots called enanthem – appeared on mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, palate, and throat, and temperature fell to near normal.
It is characteristic of patients with smallpox, measles, chicken pox and roseola infantum

Chickenpox

chicken poxvaricellaAntiviral therapy
This form of variola major was more easily confused with chickenpox.
Chickenpox was not separated from smallpox until the late 19th century.

DNA virus

dsDNA virusII in the Baltimore classificationDNA
In order to replicate, poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA viruses, the most important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses.

Vaccinia

vaccinia virus Vaccinia virusvaccinia (VACV)
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox.
Smallpox was the first disease to be widely prevented by vaccination due to pioneering work by the English physician and scientist Edward Jenner, in the eighteenth century, using cowpox virus.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox.
Cowpox is similar to, but much milder than, the highly contagious and often deadly smallpox disease.

Chordopoxvirinae

Chordopoxvirus
Diseases associated with this subfamily include smallpox.

Monkeypox

monkey poxhuman monkeypox
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox.
Monkeypox is similar to smallpox, although it is often milder.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Mary Wortley MontaguLady Mary PierrepontLady Montagu
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu observed smallpox inoculation during her stay in the Ottoman Empire, writing detailed accounts of the practice in her letters, and enthusiastically promoted the procedure in England upon her return in 1718.
Aside from her writing, Lady Mary is also known for introducing and advocating for smallpox inoculation to Britain after her return from Turkey.

Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
The earliest procedure used to prevent smallpox was inoculation (known as variolation after the introduction of smallpox vaccine to avoid possible confusion), which likely occurred in India, Africa, and China well before the practice arrived in Europe.
Soon, to avoid confusion, smallpox inoculation continued to be referred to as variolation (from variola = smallpox) and cowpox inoculation was referred to as vaccination (from Jenner's use of variolae vaccinae = smallpox of the cow).

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Jenner called the material used for inoculation vaccine, from the root word vacca, which is Latin for cow.
United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda for Category B and C Priority Pathogens. Accessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines are the most effective method of protecting the public against infectious diseases." widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.

Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
According to Voltaire (1742), the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia.
After Voltaire's recovery from a month-long smallpox infection in November 1723, the first copies were smuggled into Paris and distributed.

Tecovirimat

In July 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved tecovirimat, the first drug approved for treatment of smallpox.
Tecovirimat (ST-246 or Tpoxx) is an antiviral with activity against orthopoxviruses such as smallpox and monkeypox.

Cidofovir

acyclic nucleoside phosphonatecidofovirin
Antiviral treatments have improved since the last large smallpox epidemics, and studies suggest that the antiviral drug cidofovir might be useful as a therapeutic agent.
Cidofovir might have anti-smallpox efficacy and might be used on a limited basis in the event of a bioterror incident involving smallpox cases.

Sopona

At least seven religious deities have been specifically dedicated to smallpox, such as the god Sopona in the Yoruba religion.
Sopona (or Shapona) is the god of smallpox in the Yoruba religion.

ACAM2000

ACAM2000 is a smallpox vaccine developed by Acambis.
The medication provides for immunization against smallpox disease for people determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection.

735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic

major smallpox epidemicepidemic of 735–737major outbreak of smallpox
In Japan, the epidemic of 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of the population.
The 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic was a major smallpox epidemic that afflicted much of Japan and had a lasting historic impact.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
Vaccination immunity declined over time and was probably lost within thirty years.
In Europe, the induction of active immunity emerged in an attempt to contain smallpox.

Antonine Plague

plagueAntonine pandemicdeadly disease
While the Antonine Plague that swept through the Roman Empire in 165–180 CE may have been caused by smallpox, Saint Nicasius of Rheims became the patron saint of smallpox victims for having supposedly survived a bout in 450, and Saint Gregory of Tours recorded a similar outbreak in France and Italy in 580, the first use of the term variola; other historians speculate that Arab armies first carried smallpox from Africa into Southwestern Europe during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Scholars have suspected it to have been either smallpox or measles, but the true cause remains undetermined.

Rash

skin rashrashesskin rashes
This was followed by formation of sores in the mouth and a skin rash.
The appearance: e.g., purpuric (typical of vasculitis and meningococcal disease), fine and like sandpaper (typical of scarlet fever); circular lesions with a central depression are typical of molluscum contagiosum (and in the past, small pox); plaques with silver scales are typical of psoriasis.

Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
The widespread use of variolation in a few countries, notably Great Britain, its North American colonies, and China, somewhat reduced the impact of smallpox among the wealthy classes during the latter part of the 18th century, but a real reduction in its incidence did not occur until vaccination became a common practice toward the end of the 19th century.
Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.