Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculationvaccinatedvaccinescowpox vaccineeradicationfirst vaccinefor smallpoxinoculated
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.wikipedia
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Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.
Prevention was by the smallpox vaccine.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

ACAM2000

Its supply is being replaced by ACAM2000, a more modern product manufactured in laboratories by Acambis, now a division of Sanofi Pasteur.
ACAM2000 (Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live) is a smallpox vaccine manufactured by Emergent BioSolutions, an American specialty biopharmaceutical company.

Monkeypox

monkey poxhuman monkeypox
In 2003 this supply helped contain an outbreak of monkeypox in the United States.
The smallpox vaccine is believed to prevent infection.

Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
A method of inducing immunity known as inoculation, insufflation or "variolation" was practiced before the development of a modern vaccine and likely occurred in Africa and China well before the practice arrived in Europe.
It was replaced by smallpox vaccine, a safer alternative.

Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.
When Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was initially called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from cases of cowpox (heterotypic immunisation), smallpox could be prevented by deliberate inoculation of smallpox virus, later referred to as variolation to distinguish it from smallpox vaccination.

Sanofi Pasteur

Sanofi Pasteur MSDSanofi-PasteurConnaught Anti-toxin Laboratories
Its supply is being replaced by ACAM2000, a more modern product manufactured in laboratories by Acambis, now a division of Sanofi Pasteur.
Smallpox vaccines

James Jurin

Jurin, JamesDr. James Jurin
Some of the earliest statistical and epidemiological studies were performed by James Jurin in 1727 and Daniel Bernoulli in 1766.
James Jurin FRS FRCP (baptised 15 December 1684 – 29 March 1750) was an English scientist and physician, particularly remembered for his early work in capillary action and in the epidemiology of smallpox vaccination.

Jonathan Edwards (theologian)

Jonathan Edwards18th century Calvinist preacher of the same nameJohnathan Edwards
During the earlier days of empirical experimentation in 1758, American Calvinist Jonathan Edwards died from a smallpox inoculation.
Edwards died from a smallpox inoculation shortly after beginning the presidency at the College of New Jersey (Princeton).

Germ theory of disease

germ theorygermsgerm
In the early empirical days of vaccination, before Pasteur's work on establishing the germ theory and Lister's on antisepsis and asepsis, there was considerable cross-infection.
By the early nineteenth century, smallpox vaccination was commonplace in Europe, though doctors were unaware of how it worked or how to extend the principle to other diseases.

Peter Plett

Most, but still limited, information is available for Benjamin Jesty, Peter Plett and John Fewster.
Peter Plett (29 December 1766 – 29 March 1823) was a German teacher and pioneer of smallpox vaccine from Schleswig-Holstein.

Vaccinia

vaccinia virus Vaccinia virusvaccinia (VACV)
Dryvax is a live-virus preparation of vaccinia prepared from calf lymph.
Vaccinia virus is the active constituent of the vaccine that eradicated smallpox, making it the first human disease to be eradicated.

Benjamin Waterhouse

Dr. Waterhouse
By 1800, Jenner's work had been published in all the major European languages and had reached Benjamin Waterhouse in the United States — an indication of rapid spread and deep interest.
He is most well known for being the first doctor to test the smallpox vaccine in the United States, which he carried out on his own family.

Leslie Collier

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Leslie Collier, an English microbiologist working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, developed a method for producing a heat-stable freeze-dried vaccine in powdered form.
Leslie Harold Collier (9 February 1921 – 14 March 2011) was a scientist responsible for developing a freeze-drying method to produce a more heat stable smallpox vaccine in the late 1940s.

Vaccine controversies

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccine
Smallpox vaccine was the only vaccine available during this period, and so the determined opposition to it initiated a number of vaccine controversies that spread to other vaccines and into the 21st century.
After Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccine in 1798, variolation declined and was banned in some countries.

John Fewster

Most, but still limited, information is available for Benjamin Jesty, Peter Plett and John Fewster. In 1768 Dr John Fewster reported that variolation induced no reaction in persons who had had cowpox.
Fewster, a friend and professional colleague of Edward Jenner, played an important role in the discovery of the smallpox vaccine.

Trinity, Newfoundland and Labrador

TrinityTrinity, NewfoundlandBarrow Harbour
The introduction of the vaccine to the New World took place in Trinity, Newfoundland, in 1798 by Dr. John Clinch, boyhood friend and medical colleague of Jenner.
Trinity was the site of medical research, including the introduction of the smallpox vaccine to the new world in 1798 by John Clinch, a boyhood friend and medical colleague of Edward Jenner.

William Woodville

William Woodville, one of the early vaccinators and director of the London Smallpox Hospital is thought to have contaminated the cowpox matter—the vaccine—with smallpox matter and this essentially produced variolation.
However, he became particularly interested in Edward Jenner's introduction of what was soon to be known as smallpox vaccine, which used material obtained from cases of cowpox.

Bifurcated needle

bifurcated vaccination needle
Based on initial tests with textile needles with the eyes cut off transversely half-way he developed the bifurcated needle.
It was designed to hold one dose of reconstituted freeze-dried smallpox vaccine between its prongs.

John Clinch

Dr. John ClinchRev. Dr. John Clinch
The introduction of the vaccine to the New World took place in Trinity, Newfoundland, in 1798 by Dr. John Clinch, boyhood friend and medical colleague of Jenner.
In 1798 he gave the first smallpox vaccines at Trinity, Newfoundland.

Eczema vaccinatum

vaccinatum
Eczema vaccinatum
Eczema vaccinatum is a rare severe adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Vaccination, the term which soon replaced cowpox inoculation and vaccine inoculation, was first used in print by Jenner's friend, Richard Dunning in 1800.
The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox. William Woodville, one of the early vaccinators and director of the London Smallpox Hospital is thought to have contaminated the cowpox matter—the vaccine—with smallpox matter and this essentially produced variolation.
Its close resemblance to the mild form of smallpox and the observation that dairy farmers were immune from smallpox inspired the first smallpox vaccine, created and administered by English physician Edward Jenner.

Wyeth

American Home ProductsWyeth PharmaceuticalsA.H. Robins
It is the world's oldest smallpox vaccine, created in the late 19th century by American Home Products, a predecessor of Wyeth.