Smokeless powder

smokeless gunpowdersmokelesspowdersmokeless propellantgunpowderpropellantsmokeless propellantsdouble-base powderdouble-base powdersdouble-base smokeless powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced.wikipedia
482 Related Articles

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced. In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder) made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

Cordite

cordite-44 chargeEC powderpowder
The term is unique to the United States and is generally not used in other English-speaking countries, which initially used proprietary names such as "Ballistite" and "Cordite" but gradually shifted to "propellant" as the generic term.
Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.

Ballistite

Nobel's improved gunpowder
The term is unique to the United States and is generally not used in other English-speaking countries, which initially used proprietary names such as "Ballistite" and "Cordite" but gradually shifted to "propellant" as the generic term.
Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.

Propellant

solid propellantpropellantssolid-propellant
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced.
In firearm ballistics, propellants fill the interior of an ammunition cartridge or the chamber of a gun or cannon, leading to the expulsion of a bullet or shell (gunpowder, smokeless powder, and large gun propellants).

Explosive

explosiveshigh explosiveHE
Gunpowder is a low explosive that does not detonate but rather deflagrates (burns quickly at subsonic speed).
Since nitroglycerin is a liquid and highly unstable, it was replaced by nitrocellulose, trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 1863, smokeless powder, dynamite in 1867 and gelignite (the latter two being sophisticated stabilized preparations of nitroglycerin rather than chemical alternatives, both invented by Alfred Nobel).

Lebel Model 1886 rifle

Lebel rifleLebelLebel M1886
This was adopted for the Lebel rifle.
The Lebel rifle has the distinction of being the first military firearm to use smokeless powder ammunition.

Poudre B

smokeless powderT4
In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder) made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin.
Poudre B was the first practical smokeless gunpowder.

Cartridge (firearms)

cartridgecartridgesrounds
Since less powder was needed to propel a bullet, the cartridge could be made smaller and lighter.
A cartridge or a round is a type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

Sniper

sniperssnipingsniper team
Snipers or other concealed shooters were given away by a cloud of smoke over the firing position.
During the Boer War the latest breech-loading rifled guns with magazines and smokeless powder were used by both sides.

Frederick Abel

Frederick Augustus AbelSir Frederick AbelSir Frederick Augustus Abel
After one of the Austrian factories blew up in 1862, Thomas Prentice & Company began manufacturing guncotton in Stowmarket in 1863; and British War Office chemist Sir Frederick Abel began thorough research at Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills leading to a manufacturing process that eliminated the impurities in nitrocellulose making it safer to produce and a stable product safer to handle.
This work to an important extent prepared the way for the "smokeless powders" which came into general use towards the end of the 19th century; cordite, the type adopted by the British government in 1891, was invented jointly by him and Sir James Dewar.

Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder) made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin. This article focuses on nitrocellulose formulations, but the term smokeless powder was also used to describe various picrate mixtures with nitrate, chlorate, or dichromate oxidizers during the late 19th century, before the advantages of nitrocellulose became evident. A major step forward was the invention of guncotton, a nitrocellulose-based material, by German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1846.
More-stable and slower-burning collodion mixtures were eventually prepared using less-concentrated acids at lower temperatures for smokeless powder in firearms.

Hudson Maxim

In England in 1889, a similar powder was patented by Hiram Maxim, and in the United States in 1890 by Hudson Maxim.
Hudson Maxim (February 3, 1853 – May 6, 1927), was a U.S. inventor and chemist who invented a variety of explosives, including smokeless gunpowder, Thomas Edison referred to him as "the most versatile man in America".

Pyrocollodion

He created nitrocellulose gelatinised by ether-alcohol, which produced more nitrogen and more uniform colloidal structure than the French use of nitro-cottons in Poudre B. He called it pyrocollodion.
Pyrocollodion is a smokeless powder invented by Dmitri Mendeleev.

Laflin & Rand Powder Company

Laflin & RandLaflin
California Powder Works began producing a mixture of nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose with ammonium picrate as Peyton Powder, Leonard Smokeless Powder Company began producing nitroglycerine-nitrocellulose Ruby powders, Laflin & Rand negotiated a license to produce Ballistite, and DuPont started producing smokeless shotgun powder.
Laflin & Rand Powder Company was a gunpowder and early smokeless powder manufacturer notable for producing the smokeless powder used by United States Army infantry rifles from 1896 to 1908, which included the period of development of the M1903 Springfield rifle and .30-06 Springfield cartridge.

Wilhelm Lenk von Wolfsberg

Wilhelm Freiherr Lenk von Wolfsberg
Austrian Baron Wilhelm Lenk von Wolfsberg built two guncotton plants producing artillery propellent, but it too was dangerous under field conditions, and guns that could fire thousands of rounds using gunpowder would reach the end of their service life after only a few hundred shots with the more powerful guncotton.
The Baron occupied himself in 1849 with technical work, especially intensive with the improvement and consolidation of the gun cotton Trinitrocellulose.

Hercules Inc.

Hercules Powder CompanyHerculesHercules Aerospace
When government anti-trust action forced divestiture in 1912, DuPont retained the nitrocellulose smokeless powder formulations used by the United States military and released the double-base formulations used in sporting ammunition to the reorganized Hercules Powder Company.
Hercules was one of the major producers of smokeless powder for warfare in the United States during the 20th century.

Krag–Jørgensen

Krag-JørgensenKragKrag-Jorgensen
The United States Army evaluated 25 varieties of smokeless powder and selected Ruby and Peyton Powders as the most suitable for use in the Krag-Jørgensen service rifle.
During this decade smokeless powder came into general use, and the calibre of various service rifles diminished.

Nitroglycerin

nitroglycerineglyceryl trinitratenitro-glycerine
Nitroglycerine was synthesized by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847.
Nitroglycerin is a major component in double-based smokeless gunpowders used by reloaders.

Cannon

cannonsgunsartillery pieces
Cannon powder has the largest pieces.
In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder during the 19th century.

California Powder Works

Hercules Powder Company
California Powder Works began producing a mixture of nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose with ammonium picrate as Peyton Powder, Leonard Smokeless Powder Company began producing nitroglycerine-nitrocellulose Ruby powders, Laflin & Rand negotiated a license to produce Ballistite, and DuPont started producing smokeless shotgun powder.
California Powder Works began producing smokeless powder for firearms ammunition in the early 1890s.

Paul Marie Eugène Vieille

Paul VieillePaul VielleVieille
In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder) made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellulose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin.
Paul Marie Eugène Vieille (2 September 1854 – 14 January 1934), a graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, was a French chemist and the inventor of modern nitrocellulose-based smokeless gunpowder in 1884.

Naval Undersea Warfare Center

Naval Torpedo StationUnderwater Sound LaboratoryNaval Underwater Sound Laboratory
Charles E. Munroe of the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, Rhode Island patented a formulation of guncotton colloided with nitrobenzene, called Indurite, in 1891.
During the 1890s Charles Munroe and John Bernadou worked at Newport, patenting a formulation of nitrocellulose colloided with ether and alcohol used as smokeless powder for United States naval artillery through the World Wars.

Diphenylamine

Krupp began adding diphenylamine as a stabilizer in 1888.
In the manufacture of smokeless powder, diphenylamine is commonly used as a stabilizer, such that the gunshot residue analysis seeks to quantify traces of diphenylamine.

Primer (firearms)

primerprimer typeprimers
The fouling left by smokeless powder exhibits none of these properties (though some primer compounds can leave hygroscopic salts that have a similar effect; non-corrosive primer compounds were introduced in the 1920s ).
Particles with relatively high heat capacity are required to promptly ignite smokeless powder deterrent coatings.

Christian Friedrich Schönbein

Christian SchönbeinChristian Friedrich SchonbeinChristian Schonbein
A major step forward was the invention of guncotton, a nitrocellulose-based material, by German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1846.
It was not until 1884 that Paul Vieille tamed guncotton into a successful progressive smokeless gunpowder called Poudre B.