Norwegian train plowing through drifted snow
Extratropical cyclonic snowstorm, February 24, 2007—(Click for animation.)
Frontal snowsquall moving toward Boston, Massachusetts
Cold northwesterly wind over Lake Superior and Lake Michigan creating lake-effect snowfall
Freshly fallen snowflakes
An early classification of snowflakes by Israel Perkins Warren
An animation of seasonal snow changes, based on satellite imagery
New York City during a 2016 blizzard, which
 produced local wind gusts up to 42 mph and dropped 27.5 in of snow, breaking the city's one-day snowfall record.
Snow-covered trees in Kuusamo, Finland
Fresh snow beginning to metamorphose: The surface shows wind packing and sastrugi. In the foreground are hoar frost crystals, formed by refrozen water vapor emerging to the cold surface.
Firn—metamorphosed multi-year snow
Snow drifts forming around downwind obstructions
A powder snow avalanche
Snowmelt-induced flooding of the Red River of the North in 1997
Snow pit on the surface of a glacier, profiling snow properties where the snow becomes increasingly dense with depth as it metamorphoses towards ice
Snowfall and snowmelt are parts of the Earth's water cycle.
Traffic stranded in a 2011 Chicago snowstorm.
Winter conditions on Ontario Highway 401 in Toronto due to a snowsquall.
Deicing an aircraft during a snow event
Satellite view of the Indus River, showing snow in the Himalayas, which feeds it, and agricultural areas in Pakistan that draw on it for irrigation.
Extreme snow accumulation on building roofs
Icings resulting from meltwater at the bottom of the snow pack on the roof, flowing and refreezing at the eave as icicles and from leaking into the wall via an ice dam.
Alpine skiing.
Algae, Chlamydomonas nivalis, that thrive in snow form red areas in the suncups on this snow surface
Arctic fox, a predator of smaller animals that live beneath the snow
Trucks plowing snow on a highway in Missouri
Airport snow-clearing operations include plowing and brushing
Swiss low-profile, train-mounted snowplow
Bivouac of Napoleon's Grande Armée, during the winter retreat from Moscow
Finnish ski troops during the invasion of Finland by the Soviet Union
Army vehicles coping with snow during the Battle of the Bulge of World War II.
Norwegian military preparations during the 2009 Cold Response exercise
Navy SEALs training for winter warfare at Mammoth Mountain, California.

Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes.

- Snow

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Snowboard (meteorology)

A National Weather Service snowboard and snow-measuring stick
A MSC-approved weaverboard. The board is 42.5 cm square and 2 cm high. The lip extends 1 cm above the actual board. The stick is 38.5 cm high.

A snowboard (US) or weaverboard (Canada) is a meteorological tool used to aid in the obtaining of accurate measurement of snow accumulation.


City in northwestern Iran, serving as the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.

16th-century schematic map of Tabriz by Matrakçı Nasuh
Aerial view of northeast Tabriz, May 2012
Saat Tower, Municipality Museum and former municipality office.
Main Municipality Office
A page from the only manuscript of Safina-yi Tabriz. It contains a Persian and a Pahlavi poem
Tabriz style in Iranian miniature
Bazaar vendor of electrical goods
University of Tabriz as seen from the Applied Physics Faculty
Tabriz Railway Station
Tabriz Metro
Sahand Stadium in a Tractor football match
Sahand TV main building
Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque and Quru river, Eugène Flandin 1841.
Sketch of the gate of Tabriz, Eugène Flandin 1841.
A sketch of a 19th-century house in Tabriz, Eugène Flandin.
Painting of Blue mosque, Jules Laurens, 1872.
Siege of Tabriz during Constitutional Revolution, September 27, 1908.
Constitutional revolutionists defending Davachi bridge against monarchists, May 1, 1909.
Constitutionals in Tabriz, 1911.
Ark of Tabriz and US flag in the days after constitutional revolution, 1911.
Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911.
Soviet artillery units passing through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet Tank and troops marching through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet T-26 Tank passing through the main street of Tabriz, World War II.
A table of some of Tabriz traditional foods (köfte and syrup with sangak and Bonab Kababi with rice)
Tabriz meatballs
Qurutli Aash, a thick soup made of qurut
Tabrizi Lovuez
Nouga (Nougat)
Konjod Halvasi, a laminal sesame cookie.
Tabriz's Baklava
Dried, Fried, and Salted Nuts
Saat Tower
The Grand Bazaar
Iron Age museum
Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum)
Constitution House of Tabriz
Measure museum of Tabriz
Behnam House
Qari Bridge
Azerbaijan Museum
Blue Mosque
Shah-goli park
Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
Chay kenar (river side) at night
Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque
a mosque in Tabriz
Shah Goli Park
Eynali artificial forest in the north of the Tabriz
A week-end ritual at Eynali peak
A sample of Tabriz rugs
A newly made bronze Astrolabe, as a sample of Ghalamzani in Tabriz
An engraver in Tabriz
Shams Tabrizi, poet.
King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
Iraj Mirza, poet.
Saib Tabrizi, Persian poet.
Sattar Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Bagher Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Farah Pahlavi, is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was the Shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Mohammad Taqi Pessian, gendarme and pilot.
Ahmad Kasravi, linguist, nationalist, religious reformer, historian and cleric.
Farhad Fakhreddini composer, conductor and founder of Iran's National Orchestra.
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, poet.
Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi, writer.
Samad Behrangi, teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and writer.
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Allamah.
Tahmineh Milani, film director.
Azim Gheychisaz, mountain climber and Summiter of all 14 Eight-thousanders
Parvin Etesami, 20th-century Persian poet of Iran.
Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Dariush Shayegan, Philosopher and former University Professor.
Karim Bagheri, professional football player and coach.
Javad Fakoori, prominent military official and defence minister.

The annual precipitation is around 320 mm, a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn.


Provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about 175 km west of the city of Trabzon.

Pınarlar village, Giresun
Northern end of Gedikkaya crag, located in the eastern part of Giresun city.
A sunset view on the coast of Giresun province
Giresun and its island
Giresun city at the beginning of the 20th century
Ottoman houses in Zeytinlik neighbourhood
Pontian Greek athletics team from Giresun (formerly Kerasounta) early 20th century.
Old Municipality Building in Giresun
Giresun Commerce High School
The island of Giresun
Çotanak Sports Complex

Snowfall is somewhat common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.


Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily.

c.250 BC, First Punic War
Ancient main street of Lilybaeum
Roman baths Lilybaeum
Town houses, Lilybaeum
Venus of Lilybaeum
Mosaic floor: Domus of Boeo
Carthaginian ship (240 BC)
Church of Purgatorio, currently housing the Auditorium Santa Cecilia.
Marsala's Award for Civil Valor.

Snowfall occurs very rarely, since the temperature has never dropped below freezing, although snow has fallen before, for example in December 2014.


The rowans ( or ) or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.

White-fruited rowan Sorbus glabrescens, a Chinese species with white fruit
Mature European rowan tree
Rowan flowers
Freshly cross cut Sorbus aucuparia from the island of Engeløya in Norway with visible heartwood
Freshly rip cut Sorbus aucuparia from the island of Engeløya in Norway
The rowan pictured in the former coat of arms of Pihlajavesi

Similarly, in Finland and Sweden, the number of fruit on the trees was used as a predictor of the snow cover during winter, but here the belief was that the rowan "will not bear a heavy load of fruit and a heavy load of snow in the same year", that is, a heavy fruit crop predicted a winter with little snow.


Terminology of some roof parts
The roof of a library in Sweden
Roofs in the central of Ystad 2022.
Slate, Jersey
Terracotta tiles, Hungary
Thatch, using rice straw, Japan
Banana leaves, Cameroon
Date palm branches, Neot Semadar, Israel
Metal sheeting, Namibia
Repairing thatch, Gassho-zukuri farmhouse, Japan
Stone used as roofing material in Himachal Pradesh, India
Turf roof in Norway
Snow on the roofs of houses in Poland
The flat roofs of the Middle East, Israel
Steeply pitched, gabled roofs in Northern Europe
The overhanging eaves of China
Green roof with solar panels, Findhorn, Scotland
thumb|Five roofs of Toji-ji, Kyoto
Pitched roof with decorated gable, Chang Mai, Thailand
Sateri roof (with vertical break in pitch), Sweden
Mansard roof, county jail, Mount Gilead, Ohio
Conical roof, Nanhai Academy in Taipei
Flat roofs, Haikou City, Hainan, China
Sloped flat roof, house, Western Australia
Butterfly roof in Paradise Palms in the southwestern United States
The polychrome tiles of the Hospices de Beaune, France.
The glazed ceramic tiles of the Sydney Opera House.
Ashlar masonry dome of the Great Mosque of Kairoun, Tunisia
Imbrex and tegula tiles on the dome of Florence Cathedral.
The marble dome of the Taj Mahal.
The copper roof of Speyer Cathedral, Germany.
The lead roof of King's College Chapel, England.
The glass roof of the Grand Palais, Paris.

A roof is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind.

Physical geography

One of the two fields of geography.

NASA true-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.
A natural arch.
Meander formation.
Alexander von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography.

Glaciology is the study of glaciers and ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter (ice sheets) as continental glaciers and the former (glaciers) as alpine glaciers. Although research in the areas is similar to research undertaken into both the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, the former tends to be concerned with the interaction of ice sheets with the present climate and the latter with the impact of glaciers on the landscape. Glaciology also has a vast array of sub-fields examining the factors and processes involved in ice sheets and glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology.


Form of solid precipitation.

A large hailstone, about 6 cm in diameter
Hail shaft
Severe thunderstorms containing hail can exhibit a characteristic green coloration
Example of a three-body spike: the weak triangular echoes (pointed by the arrow) behind the red and white thunderstorm core are related to hail inside the storm.
Hailstones ranging in size from few millimetres to over a centimetre in diameter
Large hailstone with concentric rings
The largest recorded hailstone in the United States
Early automobiles were not equipped to deal with hail.
Accumulated hail in Sydney, Australia (April 2015)
Hand holding hail in a strawberry patch
Hail cannon in an old castle in Banska Stiavnica, Slovakia

Unlike other forms of water ice precipitation, such as graupel (which is made of rime ice), ice pellets (which are smaller and translucent), and snow (which consists of tiny, delicately-crystalline flakes or needles), hailstones usually measure between 5 mm and 15 cm in diameter.

Papua New Guinea

Country in Oceania that comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia (a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia).

Kerepunu women at the marketplace of Kalo, British New Guinea, 1885
Female gable image,, Oceanic art in the Bishop Museum.
British annexation of southeast New Guinea in 1884
New Guinea from 1884 to 1919. Germany and Britain controlled the eastern half of New Guinea.
Australian forces attack Japanese positions during the Battle of Buna–Gona, 7 January 1943.
Australian patrol officer in 1964
APEC 2018 in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinean children, men and women show their support for putting an end to violence against women during a White Ribbon Day march
Map of Papua New Guinea
Mount Tavurvur
Papua New Guinea's highlands
A tree-kangaroo in Papua New Guinea
A proportional representation of Papua New Guinea exports, 2019
The Ok Tedi Mine in southwestern Papua New Guinea
The language families of Papua New Guinea, according to Timothy Usher
The language families in Ross's conception of the Trans-New Guinea language family. The affiliation of some Eastern branches is not universally accepted.
Huli wigman from the Southern Highlands
Bilum bag from Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province
A resident of Boga-Boga, a village on the southeast coast of mainland Papua New Guinea
Asaro Mudmen
A 20th-century wooden Abelam ancestor figure (nggwalndu)

Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall, which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Province of Pakistan.

Gold coin of Kushan king Kanishka II, featuring lord Shiva (200–220 AD)
Approximate boundaries of the Gandharan Empire; Alexander's Army also passed through this area centered on the modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Relics of the Buddha from the ruins of the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar – now in Mandalay, Myanmar
Asia in 565 CE, showing the Shahi kingdoms, centered on modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
Bacha Khan with Mahatma Gandhi
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan
Northern parts of the province feature forests and dramatic mountain scenery, as in Swat District.
Ghabral, Swat Valley
A map of the districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with their names. Colors correspond to divisions.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's dominance: forestry
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

The winters are generally cold even in the valleys, and heavy snow during the winter blocks passes and isolates the region.