Snow tire

Winter tire, showing tread pattern designed to compact snow in the gaps.
Snow tire with metal studs, which improve traction on icy surfaces.
Tire showing the ASTM 3PMSF (Three-Peak Mountain Snow Flake) symbol, denoting a qualifying snow tire, and a separate snow flake symbol, that recommends tire replacement with 4 mm of tread remaining
A Czech road sign Winter equipment, which mandates the use of snow tires
Russian studded tires warning sticker.
Vehicle in cold, dry, powder snow, which offers comparatively better traction than moist snow.
Vehicles in warm, moist, granular snow encounter decreased roadway traction.
Compaction of snow under an advancing snow tire, causing rolling resistance while passing through about {{convert|10|cm|in|sigfig=1}} of snow.
Compaction in about {{convert|5|cm|in|sigfig=1}} of snow left behind a snow tire, showing tread-snow interaction.

Snow tires, also known as winter tires, are tires designed for use on snow and ice.

- Snow tire

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Tire

Ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface over which the wheel travels.

Assorted new automotive road tires, showing a variety of tread patterns.
Tractor tires have substantial ribs and voids for traction in soft terrain.
John Boyd Dunlop on a bicycle c. 1915
A winter tire without studs, showing tread pattern designed to compact snow in the gaps.
High-performance rally tires
Off-road tires under transport
Tires on the wheels of a bogie on a Boeing 777
A cross-section of a tire showing ply orientations
Airless tire
Components of a radial tire
Mountain bicycle tires with an open-lug pattern for grip in soft soil
Absence of grooves maximizes dry-pavement friction on a set of slick Formula One tires.
About 50% of tires use the Styrene-butadiene copolymer as a primary ingredient.
A bicycle inner tube with valve stem
Tire performance envelope by Goodyear
Tire showing uneven tread wear to the point of exposing the casing
Tire identification diagram with tire codes
A tire repair shop in Niger
Rolling resistance as a function of tire inflation
Tire showing weather-cracking over long-term exposure to the weather
Flat automobile tire
Tires recycled into water tanks on roof. Cherchen, Xinjiang.
Children on a tire swing

Snow tires are designed for use on snow and ice. They have a tread design with larger gaps than those on summer tires, increasing traction on snow and ice. Such tires that have passed a specific winter traction performance test are entitled to display a "Three-Peak Mountain Snow Flake" symbol on their sidewalls. Tires designed for winter conditions are optimized to drive at temperatures below 7 °C. Some snow tires have metal or ceramic studs that protrude from the tire to increase traction on hard-packed snow or ice. Studs abrade dry pavement, causing dust and creating wear in the wheel path. Regulations that require the use of snow tires or permit the use of studs vary by country in Asia and Europe, and by state or province in North America.

Snow chains

Snow chains, or tire chains, are devices fitted to the tires of vehicles to provide maximum traction when driving through snow and ice.

Link-type, diamond pattern snow chains on a front-wheel drive automobile.
Snow chains at the front wheel of a grader at the Pikes Peak Highway.
Automatic tire chains are permanently mounted near the drive tires and engage by turning a switch, then move into position to fling the pieces of chain under the tires automatically. Automatic chains were invented in 1941 in the United States and Sweden in 1977.
Cable chains on a car tire, with a relatively simple and easy-to-secure design; this is a ladder-type design
Cable chains on a bus tire
chain for motorcycle
Traction chains on a wheel loader

Alternatives include studded tires, which are snow tires with metal studs individually mounted into holes in the treads; emergency traction devices which may be similar to tire chains but mount around the tire through openings in the rim; and snow socks, which are fabric rather than chain or cable.

Siping (rubber)

Process of cutting thin slits across a rubber surface to improve traction in wet or icy conditions.

Zigzag sipes on tire tread
Billy Boat siping a sprint car tire

Both Bridgestone and Michelin sell snow tires that are siped at the factory, while Saf-Tee Siping and Grooving sells machines that can sipe most standard vehicle tires.

Shiiba, Miyazaki

Village located in Higashiusuki District, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

Shiiba Secondary School

During this time most locals have to change their car tires to ones equipped with stronger treading (snow tires).

Lions Gate Bridge

Suspension bridge that crosses the first narrows of Burrard Inlet and connects the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, to the North Shore municipalities of the District of North Vancouver, the City of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver.

Viewed from North Vancouver in 2002
May 1934: Signing the First Narrows Bridge agreement
Lions Gate Bridge under construction, 1938
Lions Gate Bridge suspended structure replacement, April 2001
Lions Gate Bridge at Sunset, 2013
Lions Gate Bridge from Downtown Vancouver
Lions Gate Bridge and North Vancouver from Prospect Point in Stanley Park
Lions Gate Bridge from Stanley Park, 2013
Lions Gate Bridge in relation to Vancouver city and harbour, from Cypress Viewpoint, Dec 2012
Lions Gate Bridge from floatplane
Lions Gate Bridge from Stanley Park, 2013
Lions Gate Bridge, Vancouver
Lions Gate Bridge 360 panorama, 2009

Trucks exceeding 13 t are prohibited, as are vehicles using studded tires.

Dowel bar retrofit

Method of reinforcing cracks in highway pavement by inserting steel dowel bars in slots cut across the cracks.

Illustration of dowel bar retrofitting used for pavement preservation
Slots for the dowel bar retrofit are milled into existing concrete with the modified roto mill head
Typical marks of the completed dowel bar retrofit

The backfilled slots may sometime give an impression that the highway pavements have been milled into grooves especially after the wear of patching material caused by studded tires.

Road surface

Durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.

A road being resurfaced using a road roller
Red surfacing for the bicycle lane in the Netherlands
Construction crew laying down asphalt over fiber-optic trench, in New York City
Old Roman road, leading from Jerusalem to Beit Gubrin, adjacent to regional hwy 375 in Israel
Different layers of road including asphalt layer. The total thickness of a pavement can be measured using granular base equivalency
Closeup of asphalt on a driveway
Laying asphalt
Concrete roadway in San Jose, California
A concrete road in Ewing, New Jersey.
An example of composite pavement: hot-mix asphalt overlaid onto Portland cement concrete pavement
Gravel road in Namibia
Pavement ends and turns into gravel surface road
Deteriorating asphalt
Concrete pavers
Replacing the old road with concrete blocks in Bo'ao Road area, Haikou City, Hainan, China
Polymer cement overlaying to change asphalt pavement to brick texture and color to create decorative crosswalk
Cobbles
Rectangles
Decorative wavy pattern on La Rambla
Decorative mock-brick pattern
More decorative brickwork patterns

In areas with cold climate, studded tires may be allowed on passenger cars.

Winter storm

Event in which wind coincides with varieties of precipitation that only occur at freezing temperatures, such as snow, mixed snow and rain, or freezing rain.

Heavy snowfall and strong winds during a 2016 blizzard, New York City
National Guard members clear a road of fallen trees after a February 2021 winter storm in Putnam County, West Virginia.
Snow storm in Modena, Italy
Wet snow and sleet during a winter storm, on the deck of RFA Tidespring south of Plymouth in the English Channel.
Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages.
Crabapple covered in icy glaze due to freezing rain. Ice storms often coat many surfaces. Severe ice storms, which may occur in spring, can kill plant life.
2008 Chinese winter storm in Hefei, Anhui Province, China

In places where snowfall is typical, such small snowfalls are rarely disruptive, because of effective snow and ice removal by municipalities, increased use of four-wheel drive and snow tires, and drivers being more used to winter conditions.

Nokian Tyres

Nokian Tyres plc (Nokian Renkaat Oyj), headquartered in Nokia, Finland, produces tyres for cars, trucks, buses, and heavy-duty equipment.

The brand logo of Finnish Rubber Works between 1965−1966
Nokia municipality, Finland
Nokian Hakkapeliitta, a winter tyre fitted with metal studs
Nokian Bicycle Tire
Deep tread pattern and multiple sipes in a Nokian Hakkapeliitta R winter tyre tread. The numbers 4, 6, 8 in the tread (in mm) indicate the depth of the remaining tread. The number 8 becomes unreadable as the tread wears to a depth of less than 8 mm.

Known for its winter tyres, Nokian is the only tyre manufacturer in the world with its own permanent winter tyre testing facility.

Tire rotation

Practice of moving the wheels and tires of an automobile from one position to another, to ensure even tire wear.

An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood

More complex rotation patterns are required if the vehicle has a full-size spare tire that is part of the rotation, or if there are snow tires.