Snowpack

snow packsnow quality
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.wikipedia
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Snow

snowfallsnow coverSnowfalls
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.
As snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts.

Avalanche

avalanchesavalanchingavalanche research
Assessing the formation and stability of snowpacks is important in the study and prediction of avalanches.
Avalanches are typically triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack (slab avalanche) when the forces of the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradual widening (loose snow avalanche).

Altitude

high altitudealtitudeshigh-altitude
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.

Climate

climaticclimatesaverage annual temperature
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.

Stream

creekstreamscreeks
Snowpacks are an important water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt.

River

riverineriparianleft bank
Snowpacks are an important water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt.

Melting

moltenmeltmelted
Snowpacks are an important water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
Therefore, snowpacks are both the drinking water source for many communities and a potential source of flooding (in case of sudden melting).

Glacier

glaciersglacialglaciated
Snowpacks also contribute mass to glaciers in their accumulation zone.

Accumulation zone

accumulationaccumulation areaaccumulation zones
Snowpacks also contribute mass to glaciers in their accumulation zone.

Metamorphism

metamorphosedmetamorphiccontact metamorphism
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Catchment hydrology

catchmentcatchments
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Ice–albedo feedback

ice-albedo feedbackalbedo changesfeedback loop
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Remote sensing

remote-sensingremotely sensedremote sensor
Scientists study the physical properties of snow under different conditions and their evolution, and more specifically snow metamorphism, snow hydrology (that is, the contribution of snow melt to catchment hydrology), the evolution of snow cover with climate change and its effect on the ice-albedo feedback and hydrology, both on the ground and by using remote sensing.

Habitat

habitatsmicrohabitatnatural habitat
Snow is also studied in a more global context of impact on animal habitats and plant succession.

Ecological succession

successionsuccessionalplant succession
Snow is also studied in a more global context of impact on animal habitats and plant succession.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
An important effort is put into snow classification, both as a hydrometeor and on the ground.

Degree day

degree daysdegree-dayAccumulated Degree Days
Snowpack modeling is either done by simple, statistical methods such as degree day or complex, physically based energy balance models such as the SNOWPACK model, the CROCUS model or SNOWMODEL.

Advection

advectiveadvectedadvection equation

Subnivean climate

Subniveansubnivean zonesubnivean zone,

Freshet

ice freshetfreshetsrising water levels due to melting snow and ice
A spring freshet can sometimes last several weeks on large river systems, resulting in significant inundation of flood plains as the snowpack melts in the river's watershed.