Social alienation

alienationalienatedalienatingalienatealienatesmodern alienationaffluent alienationalienalienation from societyalienation of modern society
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".wikipedia
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Marx's theory of alienation

alienationtheory of alienationalienated
Marx's theory of alienation is articulated most clearly in the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and The German Ideology (1846).
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.

Philippe Pinel

PinelPhillipe PinelDr. Pinel Unchaining the Mad
Around the same time, Pinel was popularizing a new understanding of mental alienation, particularly through his 'medical-philosophical treatise'.
He meant by alienation that the patient feels like a stranger (alienus) to the world of the 'sane'.

Commodity fetishism

fetishism of commoditiesfetishizedcommercial fetishism
There is generally held to be a transition from a philosophical-anthropological (Marxist humanism) concept (e.g. internal alienation from the self) to a structural-historical interpretation (e.g. external alienation by appropriation of labor), accompanied by a change in terminology from alienation to exploitation to commodity fetishism and reification.
The Society of the Spectacle is the ultimate form of social alienation that occurs when a person views his or her being (self) as a commodity that can be bought and sold, because he or she regards every human relation as a (potential) business transaction.

White Collar: The American Middle Classes

White Collar
The American sociologist C. Wright Mills conducted a major study of alienation in modern society with White Collar in 1951, describing how modern consumption-capitalism has shaped a society where you have to sell your personality in addition to your work.
It is also a major study of social alienation in the modern world of advanced capitalism, where cities are dominated by "salesmanship mentality".

The Essence of Christianity

His theory relies on Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1841), which argues that the idea of God has alienated the characteristics of the human being.
Feuerbach's theory of alienation would later be used by Marx in his theory of alienation.

Gnosticism

GnosticGnosticsGnostic Christianity
A double positive and negative sense of alienation is broadly shown in the spiritual beliefs referred to as Gnosticism.
According to Jonas, alienation is a distinguishing characteristics of Gnosticism, making it different from contemporary religions.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
Marx believed that alienation is a systematic result of capitalism.
Critics of capitalism associate the economic system with social inequality; unfair distribution of wealth and power; materialism; repression of workers and trade unionists; social alienation; economic inequality; unemployment; and economic instability.

The Theory of Communicative Action

Theory of Communicative Actioncommunication free from dominationLifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason
The Theory of Communicative Action associated with Jürgen Habermas emphasizes the essential role of language in public life, suggesting that alienation stems from the distortion of reasoned moral debate by the strategic dominance of market forces and state power.
Following Weber, Habermas sees specialisation as the key historical development, which leads to the alienating effects of modernity, which 'permeate and fragment everyday consciousness'.

Policy alienation

A similar concept is policy alienation, where workers experience a state of psychological disconnection from a policy programme being implemented.
In an attempt to provide clarity, Seeman broke these meanings down into five alienation dimensions: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, social isolation, and self-estrangement.

The Catcher in the Rye

Catcher in the RyeA Catcher in the Ryecatcher in the wry
Other literary works described as dealing with the theme of alienation are: The Bell Jar, Black Boy, Brave New World, The Catcher in the Rye, The Chosen, Dubliners, Othello, Fahrenheit 451, Invisible Man, Mrs Dalloway, Notes from Underground, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus, The Trial, The Castle, Waiting for Godot, The Waste Land, and Young Goodman Brown.
It was originally intended for adults but is often read by adolescents for its themes of angst and alienation, and as a critique on superficiality in society.

Kostas Axelos

Axelos, KostasKonstantinos Axelos
Marx's concepts of alienation have been classed into four types by Kostas Axelos: economic and social alienation, political alienation, human alienation, and ideological alienation.

Political alienation

alienatenot votedpolitically alienated
Such political alienation could result from not identifying with any particular political party or message, and could result in revolution, reforming behavior, or abstention from the political process, possibly due to voter apathy.
In the first instance, alienation is forced upon the individual by their environment, whereas in the second case it is voluntarily chosen by them.

The Castle (novel)

The CastleDas Schloss(The Castle)
Other literary works described as dealing with the theme of alienation are: The Bell Jar, Black Boy, Brave New World, The Catcher in the Rye, The Chosen, Dubliners, Othello, Fahrenheit 451, Invisible Man, Mrs Dalloway, Notes from Underground, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus, The Trial, The Castle, Waiting for Godot, The Waste Land, and Young Goodman Brown.
Dark and at times surreal, The Castle is often understood to be about alienation, unresponsive bureaucracy, the frustration of trying to conduct business with non-transparent, seemingly arbitrary controlling systems, and the futile pursuit of an unobtainable goal.

Anomie

anarchyanomicNormlessness
Normlessness (or what Durkheim referred to as anomie) "denotes the situation in which the social norms regulating individual conduct have broken down or are no longer effective as rules for behaviour".
The nineteenth century French pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim borrowed the word from French philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau and used it in his influential book Suicide (1897), outlining the social (and not individual) causes of suicide, characterized by a rapid change of the standards or values of societies (often erroneously referred to as normlessness), and an associated feeling of alienation and purposelessness.

Self-estrangement

Some, with Marx, consider self-estrangement to be the end result and thus the heart of social alienation.
Melvin Seeman defined the meaning of alienation in his work On the Meaning of Alienation(1959). Seeman states that alienation is identified by five alternative meanings: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement.

Radiohead

Dead Air Space Radioheadband of the same name
British progressive rock band Pink Floyd's concept album The Wall (1979) and British alternative rock band Radiohead's album OK Computer (1997), both deal with the subject of alienation in their lyrics.
Radiohead's third album, OK Computer (1997), brought them international fame; noted for its complex production and themes of modern alienation, it is often acclaimed as a landmark record of the 1990s and one of the best albums in popular music.

Emptiness

The Emptinessvacuityexistential vacuum
Emptiness as a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy.

OK Computer

Exit Music (For a Film)Let DownClimbing Up the Walls
British progressive rock band Pink Floyd's concept album The Wall (1979) and British alternative rock band Radiohead's album OK Computer (1997), both deal with the subject of alienation in their lyrics.
The album depicts a world fraught with rampant consumerism, social alienation, emotional isolation and political malaise; in this capacity, OK Computer is often interpreted as having prescient insight into the mood of 21st-century life.

Social exclusion

marginalizedmarginalizationsocial inclusion
It was suggested that the social meaning of deafness is established by interaction between deaf and hearing people, sometimes resulting in marginalization of the deaf, which is sometimes challenged.
Alienation or disenfranchisement resulting from social exclusion can be connected to a person's social class, race, skin color, religious affiliation, ethnic origin, educational status, childhood relationships, living standards, and or political opinions, and appearance.

Proactive policing

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Thus, when a particular crime problem becomes apparent, it is often approached by monetarily related arguments, such as the need for more police, equipment, training etc.; rather than by non-monetary related approaches, such as recognizing how a high perception of alienation among police officers from the citizens of the community where they patrol reduces morale and spawns police indifference, inactivity, and apathy.

Social capital

goodwillsocialcapital
They observed a breakdown of traditional bonds and the progressive development of anomie and alienation in society (Wilmott, 1986).

Pink Floyd

FloydPink Floyd RecordsMidsummer High Weekend
British progressive rock band Pink Floyd's concept album The Wall (1979) and British alternative rock band Radiohead's album OK Computer (1997), both deal with the subject of alienation in their lyrics.
O'Neill Surber compared the lyrics of Dark Side of the Moon "Brain Damage" with Karl Marx theory of self-alienation; "there's someone in my head, but it's not me."

Social relation

social interactionsocial relationssocial interactions
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".

Value (ethics)

valuesvaluevalue system
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".