Social democracy

social democraticsocial-democraticsocial democratsocial democratssocial-democratsocial-democracysocial-democratssocialdemocraticSocial Democratic movementsocial democratic parties
Social democracy is a political, social and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented economy.wikipedia
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Social Democratic Party

PSDSPDsocial democratic parties
Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the post-war consensus and their influence on socioeconomic policy in the Nordic countries, social democracy became associated with the Nordic model and Keynesianism within political circles in the late 20th century.
Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their political ideology.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
Social democracy originated as an ideology within the socialist and labour movement, whose goal at different times has been a social revolution to move away from capitalism to a post-capitalist economy such as socialism, a peaceful revolution as in evolutionary socialism, or the establishment and support of a welfare state.
Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, regulation, and a welfare state.

Eduard Bernstein

Edward BernsteinBernsteinBernsteinism
Starting in the 1890s, there was a dispute between committed revolutionary social democrats such as Rosa Luxemburg and reformist or evolutionary social democrats as well as Marxist revisionists such as Eduard Bernstein, who supported a more gradual approach grounded in liberal democracy, with Karl Kautsky representing a centrist position. Democratic socialism includes classical Marxists, democratic communists, libertarian socialists, market socialists and orthodox Marxists such as Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky and Rosa Luxemburg. In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in Marxism that proposed specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advancing instead the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism that are to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Eduard Bernstein (6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.

Rosa Luxemburg

LuxemburgismLuxemburgLuxemburgist
Starting in the 1890s, there was a dispute between committed revolutionary social democrats such as Rosa Luxemburg and reformist or evolutionary social democrats as well as Marxist revisionists such as Eduard Bernstein, who supported a more gradual approach grounded in liberal democracy, with Karl Kautsky representing a centrist position. Democratic socialism includes classical Marxists, democratic communists, libertarian socialists, market socialists and orthodox Marxists such as Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky and Rosa Luxemburg.
Due to her pointed criticism of both the Leninist and the more moderate social democratic schools of socialism, Luxemburg has had a somewhat ambivalent reception among scholars and theorists of the political left.

Pasokification

PASOK's electoral collapse
By the 2010s, most social democratic parties that accepted triangulation and the neoliberal shift in policies such as austerity, deregulation, free trade, privatization and welfare reforms such as workfare experienced a drastic decline as the Third Way had largely fallen out of favour in a phenomenon known as Pasokification.
Pasokification is the decline of centre-left social-democratic political parties in Europe and several other Western countries during the 2010s and the simultaneous rise of nationalist, left-wing and right wing populist alternatives.

Third Way

Third Way (centrism)third way politicscentrist
With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, many social democratic parties incorporated the centrist Third Way ideology, aiming to fuse economic liberalism with social democratic welfare policies. During the late 20th century, these labels were embraced, contested and rejected due to the emergence of developments within the European left such as Eurocommunism, the rise of neoliberalism, the fall of the Soviet Union and Marxist–Leninist governments, the Third Way and the rise of anti-austerity and Occupy movements in the late 2000s and early 2010s due to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the Great Recession.
The Third Way is promoted by social liberals and some social democratic parties.

Reformism

reformistreformistsreform
Starting in the 1890s, there was a dispute between committed revolutionary social democrats such as Rosa Luxemburg and reformist or evolutionary social democrats as well as Marxist revisionists such as Eduard Bernstein, who supported a more gradual approach grounded in liberal democracy, with Karl Kautsky representing a centrist position.
The debate on the ability for social democratic reformism to lead to a socialist transformation of society is over a century old.

Communist party

communist partiesmass organizationcommunist
In the late 1910s, socialist parties that were committed to revolutionary socialism renamed themselves as communist parties, causing a split in the socialist movement between these supporting the October Revolution and those opposing it.
Lenin developed the role of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when social democracy in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction ("of the majority") and the Menshevik faction ("of the minority").

Ferdinand Lassalle

LassalleFerdinand LasalleLassallean
During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, social democracy was a movement that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange, taking influence from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle.
Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864) was a Prussian-German jurist, philosopher, socialist and political activist best remembered as the initiator of national-style social democracy in Germany as well as for coining the terms night-watchman state and iron law of wages.

Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory)

capitalist mode of productioncapitalismcapitalist
By the 1910s, social democracy had spread worldwide and transitioned towards advocating an evolutionary and peaceful change from capitalism to socialism using established political processes.
The capitalist mode of production may exist within societies with differing political systems (e.g. liberal democracy, social democracy, fascism, Communist state and Czarism) and alongside different social structures such as tribalism, the caste system, an agrarian-based peasant society, urban industrial society and post-industrialism.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
This latest development contributed to the rise of politicians such as Jeremy Corbyn in the United Kingdom and Bernie Sanders in the United States who rejected centrist politicians that supported triangulation within the Labour and Democratic parties. In 1956, leading British Labour Party politician and author Anthony Crosland claimed that capitalism had been abolished in Britain, although others such as Welshman Aneurin Bevan, Minister of Health in the first post-war Labour government and the architect of the National Health Service, disputed the claim that Britain was a socialist state.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom that has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists.

Corporatism

corporatistcorporativecorporativism
Social democracy made appeals to communitarian, corporatist and sometimes nationalist sentiments while rejecting the economic and technological determinism generally characteristic of both orthodox Marxism and economic liberalism. Although Christian democrats, social liberals, national and social conservatives tend to support some social democratic policies and generally regard capitalism as compatible with a mixed economy, classical liberals, conservative liberals, neoliberals, liberal conservatives and right-libertarians define capitalism as the free market, supporting a small government and a laissez-faire capitalist market economy while opposing social democratic policies, government regulation and economic interventionism, seeing actually existing capitalism as corporatism, corporatocracy, or crony capitalism.
This is sometimes also referred to as neo-corporatism and is associated with social democracy.

Socialist Party (France)

Socialist PartyPSSocialist
When the French Socialist Party was in power during the post-war period, some commentators claimed that France was a socialist country and the same is now applied to the Nordic countries and the Nordic model, although as in the rest of Europe the laws of capitalism still operated fully and private enterprise dominated the economy.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left.

List of socialist states

Marxist–Leninist statesList of socialist countriessocialist republics
Democratic socialism is generally defined as an anti-Leninist and anti-Stalinist left-wing big tent that opposes authoritarian and statist forms of socialism, rejects self-described socialist states as well as Marxism–Leninism and its derivatives such as Stalinism and Maoism.
In particular, there are numerous cases of Social Democratic and Democratic Socialist political parties winning elections in liberal democratic states and ruling for a number of terms until a different party wins the elections.

Anthony Crosland

Tony Crosland The Right Honourable '''Anthony CroslandAnthony Crossland
In 1956, leading British Labour Party politician and author Anthony Crosland claimed that capitalism had been abolished in Britain, although others such as Welshman Aneurin Bevan, Minister of Health in the first post-war Labour government and the architect of the National Health Service, disputed the claim that Britain was a socialist state.
He was a prominent socialist intellectual, on the social democratic wing on the right of the party.

Market socialism

free-market socialismmarket socialistmarket
Democratic socialism includes classical Marxists, democratic communists, libertarian socialists, market socialists and orthodox Marxists such as Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky and Rosa Luxemburg.
Market socialism also contrasts with social democratic policies implemented within capitalist market economies: while social democracy aims to achieve greater economic stability and equality through policy measures such as taxes, subsidies and social welfare programs, market socialism aims to achieve similar goals through changing patterns of enterprise ownership and management.

Ideology

ideologicalideologiespolitical ideology
Social democracy originated as an ideology within the socialist and labour movement, whose goal at different times has been a social revolution to move away from capitalism to a post-capitalist economy such as socialism, a peaceful revolution as in evolutionary socialism, or the establishment and support of a welfare state.
For example, in a feudal mode of production, religious ideology is the most prominent aspect of the superstructure, while in capitalist formations, ideologies such as liberalism and social democracy dominate.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
During the late 20th century, these labels were embraced, contested and rejected due to the emergence of developments within the European left such as Eurocommunism, the rise of neoliberalism, the fall of the Soviet Union and Marxist–Leninist governments, the Third Way and the rise of anti-austerity and Occupy movements in the late 2000s and early 2010s due to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the Great Recession.
Many communist and socialist organisations in the West turned their guiding principles over to social democracy and democratic socialism.

Economic interventionism

government interventioninterventioniststate intervention
Social democracy is a political, social and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented economy.
However, modern liberals (in the United States) and contemporary social democrats (in Europe) are inclined to support interventionism, seeing state economic interventions as an important means of promoting greater income equality and social welfare.

Mixed economy

mixed economiesmixedmixed economic systems
During the post-war period, social democrats embraced a mixed-market economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services being under public ownership. Although Christian democrats, social liberals, national and social conservatives tend to support some social democratic policies and generally regard capitalism as compatible with a mixed economy, classical liberals, conservative liberals, neoliberals, liberal conservatives and right-libertarians define capitalism as the free market, supporting a small government and a laissez-faire capitalist market economy while opposing social democratic policies, government regulation and economic interventionism, seeing actually existing capitalism as corporatism, corporatocracy, or crony capitalism.
In reference to post-World War II Western European economic models as championed by Christian democrats and social democrats, the mixed economy is a form of capitalism where most industries are privately owned with only a small number of public utilities and essential services under public ownership.

Socialist Party of America

SocialistSocialist PartySocial Democratic
Socialist Party of America presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs obtained 5.99% of the popular vote in the 1912 presidential election, also managing to win nearly one million votes in the 1920 presidential election despite Debs himself being imprisoned for alleged sedition at that time due to his opposition to World War I.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.

Green politics

greengreen movementGreens
This decline has been matched by increased support for Left and Green social democratic parties that rejected neoliberal and Third Way policies.
Left-green platforms of the form that make up the green parties today draw terminology from the science of ecology, and policy from environmentalism, deep ecology, feminism, pacifism, anarchism, libertarian socialism, libertarian possibilism, social democracy, eco-socialism, and/or social ecology or Green libertarianism.

Liberal conservatism

liberal conservativeliberal-conservativeliberal conservatives
Although Christian democrats, social liberals, national and social conservatives tend to support some social democratic policies and generally regard capitalism as compatible with a mixed economy, classical liberals, conservative liberals, neoliberals, liberal conservatives and right-libertarians define capitalism as the free market, supporting a small government and a laissez-faire capitalist market economy while opposing social democratic policies, government regulation and economic interventionism, seeing actually existing capitalism as corporatism, corporatocracy, or crony capitalism.
American "modern liberalism" happens to be quite different from European liberalism and occupies the centre-left of the political spectrum, in contrast to many European countries where liberalism is often more associated with the centre-right and social democracy makes up a substantial part of the centre-left.

Ethical socialism

ethical socialistethical doctrineethical
In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in Marxism that proposed specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advancing instead the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism that are to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Ethical socialism had a profound impact on the social democratic movement and reformism during the later half of the 20th century, particularly in Great Britain.

Revolutionary socialism

revolutionary socialistsocialist revolutionrevolutionary
Its origins lie in 1860s Germany as a form of revolutionary socialism associated with orthodox Marxism.
It is used in contrast to the reformism of social democracy and other evolutionary approaches to socialism.