Social network

networknetworkingnetworkssocial networkssocial network theorysocial network analysissocialcontactinner circlelink analysis
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.wikipedia
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Social structure

social structuresstructuresocial system
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
On the meso scale, it is the structure of social network ties between individuals or organizations.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.
Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.

Network science

networksnetworkdiameter
Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science.
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).

Georg Simmel

SimmelGeorge SimmelGeorg Simmel’s
Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations".
With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis.

Manchester school (anthropology)

Manchester SchoolManchester Group
A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius, often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom.
Manchester school members and interlocutors also played major roles in the development of the field of Social Networks in anthropology and the social sciences.

Social network analysis

network analysissocial networking potentialsocial network
The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics.
Social Networking Potential (SNP) is a numeric coefficient, derived through algorithms to represent both the size of an individual's social network and their ability to influence that network.

Mark Granovetter

GranovetterGranovetter's workGranovetter’s work
Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks.
He is best known for his work in social network theory and in economic sociology, particularly his theory on the spread of information in social networks known as "The Strength of Weak Ties" (1973).

Social relation

social interactionsocial relationssocial interactions
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
Next are social contacts, a pair of social actions, which form the beginning of social interactions.

Centrality

degree centralityClosenesscentral
Egonetwork analysis focuses on network characteristics such as size, relationship strength, density, centrality, prestige and roles such as isolates, liaisons, and bridges.
Applications include identifying the most influential person(s) in a social network, key infrastructure nodes in the Internet or urban networks, and super-spreaders of disease.

Agent-based model

agent-basedagent-based modelingagent based model
Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is often ignored although this may not be the case in practice (see agent-based modeling).
Examples of applications include the modeling of organizational behaviour and cognition, team working, supply chain optimization and logistics, modeling of consumer behavior, including word of mouth, social network effects, distributed computing, workforce management, and portfolio management.

Bridge (interpersonal)

bridgeslocal bridge
Egonetwork analysis focuses on network characteristics such as size, relationship strength, density, centrality, prestige and roles such as isolates, liaisons, and bridges.
A bridge is a type of social tie that connects two different groups in a social network.

Sociometry

sociometricsociometric structuressociometrics
In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry).
Other approaches were developed in last decades, such as social network analysis, or sociomapping.

Information science

Information SciencesInformation StudiesInformation Science and Engineering
In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.
His vision of a great network of knowledge focused on documents and included the notions of hyperlinks, search engines, remote access, and social networks.

Informal organization

informalinformal group (society)informal organisation
Network research on organizations may focus on either intra-organizational or inter-organizational ties in terms of formal or informal relationships.
It consists of a dynamic set of personal relationships, social networks, communities of common interest, and emotional sources of motivation.

Barry Wellman

Networked individualism
Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks.
His focus was on community, computer applications, social networks and self-conception, and his dissertation showed that the social identities of African-American and White American Pittsburgh junior high school students were related to the extent of segregation of their schools.

Snowball sampling

snowballingRespondent Driven Samplingrespondent-driven sampling
At the micro-level, social network research typically begins with an individual, snowballing as social relationships are traced, or may begin with a small group of individuals in a particular social context.
Snowball sampling and respondent-driven sampling also allows researchers to make estimates about the social network connecting the hidden population.

Social

Social dramasociallysocio
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

Social complexity

complexComplexity theorycomplex social interactions
In general, social networks are self-organizing, emergent, and complex, such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system.
Complex social network analysis is used to study the dynamics of large, complex social networks.

Exponential random graph models

exponential random graph model
Randomly distributed networks: Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s.
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a family of statistical models for analyzing data about social and other networks.

Homophily

homophilichomophilousThe Similarity Principle
This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties.
The presence of homophily has been discovered in a vast array of network studies.

Clustering coefficient

clusteringclusterlocal clustering
Another general characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution, which decreases as the node degree increases.
Evidence suggests that in most real-world networks, and in particular social networks, nodes tend to create tightly knit groups characterised by a relatively high density of ties; this likelihood tends to be greater than the average probability of a tie randomly established between two nodes (Holland and Leinhardt, 1971; Watts and Strogatz, 1998 ).

Jacob L. Moreno

Jacob MorenoJacob Levy MorenoJ.L. Moreno
In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry). Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships.
Moreno is also widely credited as one of the founders of the discipline of social network analysis, the branch of sociology that deals with the quantitative evaluation of an individual's role in a group or community by analysis of the network of connections between them and others.

Community

communitiescommunalsmall community
Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (Gemeinschaft, German, commonly translated as "community") or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (Gesellschaft, German, commonly translated as "society").

J. Clyde Mitchell

Clyde MitchellJ. C. MitchellJames Clyde Mitchell
A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius, often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom.
Mitchell studied network analysis and was a founding member of the International Network for Social Network Analysis, contributing to its Connections magazine.

Clique

cliquescoteriepopular clique
Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability, cliques, cohesive subgroups, or other group actions or behavior.
Within the concepts of sociology, cliques are a formation of two or more individuals who share bonding characteristics that allow for them to identify with one another to form a social network.