Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychologicalsocial psychologistssociopsychologicalpsychologicalgrouppopular imaginationsocial modelsSocial psychological theory
Not to be confused with Social experiment.wikipedia
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Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
In such situations, people can be influenced to follow internalized cultural norms.
Social psychology recognizes smaller group units (such as a team or an office) may also endorse norms separately or in addition to cultural or societal expectations.

Kurt Lewin

LewinKurt Zadek LewinLeadership climate
During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany.
Kurt Lewin (9 September 1890 – 12 February 1947) was a German-American psychologist, known as one of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology in the United States.

Bystander effect

bystanderbystander interventionBystander apathy
In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, and aggression.
The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological claim that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when other people are present; the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that one of them will help.

Attitude (psychology)

attitudeattitudessocial attitude
Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most commonly studied topics in this era.
Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology."

Group dynamics

group psychologygroup behaviorgroup process
As a generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena (see group dynamics).
Eventually, the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) coined the term group dynamics to describe the positive and negative forces within groups of people.

Attribution (psychology)

attribution theoryattributionattributions
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, and the self-concept are perhaps the greatest areas of growth in recent years.
In social psychology, attribution is the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events.

Implicit-association test

Implicit Association TestimplicitProject Implicit
For example, experiments using the Implicit Association Test have found that people often demonstrate implicit bias against other races, even when their explicit responses reveal equal mindedness.
The implicit-association test (IAT) is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's subconscious association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

Social cognition

social cognitiveand social cognitionschemas
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, and the self-concept are perhaps the greatest areas of growth in recent years.
In the area of social psychology, social cognition refers to a specific approach in which these processes are studied according to the methods of cognitive psychology and information processing theory.

Racism

racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice.
In sociology and social psychology, racial identity and the acquisition of that identity, is often used as a variable in racism studies.

Interpersonal attraction

attractionattractedChemistry
Attitudes are also involved in several other areas of the discipline, such as conformity, interpersonal attraction, social perception, and prejudice.
The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology.

Dual process theory

dual-processDual-Process Modeldual process accounts
Dual-process theories of persuasion (such as the elaboration likelihood model) maintain that the persuasive process is mediated by two separate routes; central and peripheral.
Dual process models are very common in the study of social psychological variables, such as attitude change.

Abraham Tesser

One hypothesis on how attitudes are formed, first advanced by Abraham Tesser in 1983, is that strong likes and dislikes are ingrained in our genetic make-up.
His research has made significant contributions to several areas in the field of Social Psychology.

Fundamental attribution error

correspondence biascorrespondence biases and attributional errorscorrespondence inference
For instance, the fundamental attribution error is the tendency to make dispositional attributions for behavior, overestimating the influence of personality and underestimating the influence of situations.
In social psychology, fundamental attribution error (FAE), also known as correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the tendency for people to under-emphasize situational explanations for an individual's observed behavior while over-emphasizing dispositional and personality-based explanations for their behavior.

Interpersonal perception

interpersonalself-based heuristic
The study of how people form beliefs about each other while interacting is known as interpersonal perception.
Interpersonal perception is an area of research in social psychology which examines the beliefs that interacting people have about each other.

Defensive attribution hypothesis

defensive attributiondefensive attributions
Other ways people protect their self-esteem are by believing in a just world, blaming victims for their suffering, and making defensive attributions, which explain our behavior in ways which defend us from feelings of vulnerability and mortality.
The defensive attribution hypothesis (or bias, theory, or simply defensive attribution) is a social psychological term where an observer attributes the causes for an mishap to minimize their fear of being a victim or a cause in a similar situation.

Stereotype

stereotypesstereotypicalstereotyping
This type of schema is actually a stereotype, a generalized set of beliefs about a particular group of people (when incorrect, an ultimate attribution error).
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

Social perception

person perceptionpeople's perceptionperception
Person perception is the study of how people form impressions of others.
The fascination and research for social perception date back to the late 1800s when social psychology was first being discovered.

Cognitive dissonance

cognitive dissonance theorydissonancecognitive consistency
In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, and aggression.
In that vein, social psychology proposed that the mental health of the patient is positively influenced by his and her action in freely choosing a specific therapy and in exerting the required, therapeutic effort to overcome cognitive dissonance.

Timothy Wilson

Timothy D. WilsonT. D. WilsonWilson
Studies done by Timothy Wilson and Daniel Gilbert in 2003 have shown that people overestimate the strength of reaction to anticipated positive and negative life events that they actually feel when the event does occur.
Timothy D. Wilson is an American social psychologist and writer.

Daniel Gilbert (psychologist)

Daniel GilbertDan GilbertDaniel T. Gilbert
Studies done by Timothy Wilson and Daniel Gilbert in 2003 have shown that people overestimate the strength of reaction to anticipated positive and negative life events that they actually feel when the event does occur.
Daniel Todd Gilbert (born November 5, 1957) is an American social psychologist and writer.

Leon Festinger

Festingerfailed prophecy
Leon Festinger's 1954 social comparison theory is that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others when they are uncertain of their own ability or opinions.
Leon Festinger (8 May 1919 – 11 February 1989) was an American social psychologist, perhaps best known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory.

Trust (social science)

trusttrustworthinessTrust (social sciences)
Sociology tends to focus on two distinct views: the macro view of social systems, and a micro view of individual social actors (where it borders with social psychology).

Just-world hypothesis

just world hypothesisJust-world phenomenonJust-world fallacy
Other ways people protect their self-esteem are by believing in a just world, blaming victims for their suffering, and making defensive attributions, which explain our behavior in ways which defend us from feelings of vulnerability and mortality.
This hypothesis has been widely studied by social psychologists since Melvin J. Lerner conducted seminal work on the belief in a just world in the early 1960s.

Social comparison theory

social comparisonsocial comparisonsdownward social comparison
Leon Festinger's 1954 social comparison theory is that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others when they are uncertain of their own ability or opinions.
Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.

Propaganda

propagandistpropagandisticpropagandists
During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U.S. military.
A number of techniques based in social psychological research are used to generate propaganda.