Social structure

social structuresstructuresocial systemstructuralsocialsocial systemsstructuresStructural sociologysocial class structuressocial patterns
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.wikipedia
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Structure and agency

social ontologyagencyagency and structure
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Structure is the recurrent patterned arrangements which influence or limit the choices and opportunities available.

Social network

networknetworkingnetworks
On the meso scale, it is the structure of social network ties between individuals or organizations.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

Macrosociology

macromacro-sociologicalmacro-level
On the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (most notably the class structure), social institutions, or other patterned relations between large social groups. Social structure can also be divided into microstructure and macrostructure.
Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.

Social system

social systemssocialsocietal system
On the micro scale, it can be the way norms shape the behavior of individuals within the social system.
It is the formal structure of role and status that can form in a small, stable group.

Social stratification

social hierarchystratificationstratified
On the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (most notably the class structure), social institutions, or other patterned relations between large social groups.
In sociology, for example, proponents of action theory have suggested that social stratification is commonly found in developed societies, wherein a dominance hierarchy may be necessary in order to maintain social order and provide a stable social structure.

Structural functionalism

functionalismfunctionalistsocial function
The notion of social structure was extensively developed in the 20th century, with key contributions from structuralist perspectives drawing on the theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss, Feminist or Marxist perspectives, from functionalist perspectives such as those developed by Talcott Parsons and his followers, or from a variety of analytic perspectives (see Blau 1975, Lopez and Scott 2000).
This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms.

Anthony Giddens

GiddensGiddens, AnthonyLord Giddens
The most influential attempts to combine the concept of social structure with agency are Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration and Pierre Bourdieu's practice theory.
In the second stage, Giddens developed the theory of structuration, an analysis of agency and structure in which primacy is granted to neither.

Structuration theory

structurationtheory of structurationadaptive structuration
The most influential attempts to combine the concept of social structure with agency are Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration and Pierre Bourdieu's practice theory.
The theory of structuration is a social theory of the creation and reproduction of social systems that is based in the analysis of both structure and agents (see structure and agency), without giving primacy to either.

Peter Blau

Peter M. BlauPeter Michael BlauBlau, Peter M.
Still others, notably Peter Blau, follow Simmel in attempting to base a formal theory of social structure on numerical patterns in relationships—analyzing, for example, the ways in which factors like group size shape intergroup relations.
His sociological specialty was in organizational and social structures. He formulated theories relating to many aspects of social phenomena, including upward mobility, occupational opportunity, and heterogeneity.

Society

societiessocialsocietal
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

Microsociology

micromicro-sociologymicro-level
Social structure can also be divided into microstructure and macrostructure.
Macrosociology, by contrast, concerns the social structure and broader systems.

Pierre Bourdieu

BourdieuBourdieu, Pierre Bourdieu
The most influential attempts to combine the concept of social structure with agency are Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration and Pierre Bourdieu's practice theory.
From Émile Durkheim, through Marcel Mauss and Claude Lévi-Strauss, Bourdieu inherited a certain structuralist interpretation of the tendency of social structures to reproduce themselves, based on the analysis of symbolic structures and forms of classification.

Agency (sociology)

agencysocial actoragents
By contrast, structure is those factors of influence (such as social class, religion, gender, ethnicity, ability, customs, etc.) that determine or limit an agent and their decisions.

Cognitive social structures

cognitive structures
Cognitive social structures (CSS) is the focus of research that investigates how individuals perceive their own social structure (e.g. members of an organization, friend group, hierarchy, company employees, etc.).

Power (social and political)

powerpolitical powerpowers
The term "authority" is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate by the social structure.

Formative context

They are the structures that limit both the practice and the imaginative possibilities in a socio-political order, and in doing so shape the routines of conflict over social, political and economic resources that govern access to labor, loyalty, and social station, e.g. government power, economic capital, technological expertise, etc. In a formative context, the institutions structure conflict over government power and capital allocation, whereas the imaginative framework shapes the preconceptions about possible forms of human interaction.

Social order

ordersocial ordersmaintaining order
In the first sense, it refers to a particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving.

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
Alexis de Tocqueville was apparently the first to use the term social structure; later, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Max Weber, Ferdinand Tönnies, and Émile Durkheim all contributed to structural concepts in sociology.
While Durkheim's work deals with a number of subjects, including suicide, the family, social structures, and social institutions, a large part of his work deals with the sociology of knowledge.

Structural violence

structuralstructural forcesinstitutionalised violence
It refers to a form of violence wherein some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs.

Conflict theories

conflict theoryconflictconflict theorist
While Marx focused on the way individual behaviour is conditioned by social structure, Weber emphasized the importance of "social action," i.e., the ability of individuals to affect their social relationships.

Political structure

politicalpolitical structures
In the social domain, its counterpart is social structure.

Base and superstructure

superstructurebasesuperstructures
Marx argued that the economic base substantially determined the cultural and political superstructure of a society.

Robert K. Merton

Robert MertonMertonMerton's theory of deviance
Like Durkheim and Parsons he analyzes society with reference to whether cultural and social structures are well or badly integrated.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.