Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialisticsocialist movementSocsocialist ideologyself-managementsocialist partysocialist systemsocialist society
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.wikipedia
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Types of socialism

separate road to socialismideasList of socialist ideologies
There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

Organizational Self-management

workers' self-managementself-managementautogestion
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Self-management is a characteristic of many forms of socialism, with proposals for Self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by libertarian and market socialists, communists and anarchists.

Eco-socialism

eco-socialistEcosocialismecosocialist
Today, some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism and progressivism.
Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization.

Market socialism

free-market socialismmarket socialistmarket
By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Market socialism differs from non-market socialism in that the market mechanism is utilized for the allocation of capital goods and the means of production.

Socialist Party

PSsocialist partiesSocialist
Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world.
All of these parties claim to uphold some form of socialism, though they may have very different interpretations of what "socialism" means.

Utopian socialism

utopian socialistutopian socialistsutopian
The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would later be labelled "utopian socialism".
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.

Social dividend

Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend.
The social dividend is the return on the capital assets and natural resources owned by society in a socialist economy.

Socialist state

socialist republicsocialistsocialist countries
By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. It is a political ideology (or world view), a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy.
A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.

Post-capitalism

post-capitalistend of capitalismdestroying capitalism
By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
The most notable among them are socialism and anarchism.

Islamic socialism

Islamic socialistIslamic Marxistsocialism
Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī, a Companion of Prophet Muhammad, is credited by many as a principal antecedent of Islamic socialism.
Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism.

Charles Fourier

FourierFourieristFrançois Marie Charles Fourier
The Owenites, Saint-Simonians and Fourierists provided a series of coherent analyses and interpretations of society. West European social critics, including Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Charles Hall, and Saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.

Socialist calculation debate

Economic calculation debateeconomic calculation argumentobjectively determined
The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system.
Although contributions to the question of economic coordination and calculation under socialism existed within the socialist movement prior to the 20th century, the phrase socialist calculation debate emerged in the 1920s beginning with Ludwig von Mises' critique of socialism.

Calculation in kind

calculation performed in-kindcalculation-in-kindcalculation in natural units
Non-market socialism involves replacing factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism.
As the basis for a socialist economy it was proposed to replace money and financial calculation.

Social ownership

socializationSocialization (economics)socially owned
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Social ownership of the means of production is the common defining characteristic of all the various forms of socialism.

Louis Blanc

Jean Joseph Charles Louis BlancJean Joseph Louis BlancJJL Blanc
West European social critics, including Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Charles Hall, and Saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution.
A socialist who favored reforms, he called for the creation of cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor.

Paris Commune

CommuneCommune of ParisParis Commune of 1871
The Paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally, from 28 March) to 28 May 1871.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris, ) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

State capitalism

state capitalistmonopoly capitalismstate-capitalism
By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. It is a political ideology (or world view), a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy.
This practice is in contrast with the ideals of both socialism and laissez-faire capitalism.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were Marxist communism, conservatism and socialism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and Marxism-Leninism.

Revolutions of 1848

Spring of Nations1848 Revolution1848 revolutions
While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.
A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to emerge.

International Workingmen's Association

First InternationalInternational Working Men's AssociationFirst
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), often called the First International, was founded in London in 1864.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), often called the First International (1864–1876), was an international organisation which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle.

Planned economy

command economycentrally planned economyplanned economies
By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. It is a political ideology (or world view), a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy.
The majority of countries adopting socialism (including those based on the Soviet model) have used central planning, though a minority (such as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) have adopted some degree of market socialism.

Socialist economics

socialist economysocialistsocialist economies
Originally, the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economy, alongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force.
Socialist economics comprises the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement.
In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe.

Mazdak

MazdakismMazdakitesMazdak revolt in Persia 524 (or 528)
Mazdak the Younger (died c. 524 or 528 CE), a Persian communal proto-socialist, instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good.
He has been seen as a proto-socialist.

Georges Sorel

SorelGeorge SorelGeorges Eugène Sorel
Syndicalism emerged in France inspired in part by the ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and later by Fernand Pelloutier and Georges Sorel.
His notion of the power of myth in people's lives (in particular, national myth) inspired socialists, anarchists, Marxists, and fascists.