Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR YugoslaviaYugoslavformer Yugoslaviaformer Yugoslavsocialist YugoslaviaYugoslaviancommunist YugoslaviaSFRY
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.wikipedia
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Josip Broz Tito

TitoMarshal TitoJosip Broz
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз, ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито, ), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.

Non-Aligned Movement

NAMnon-alignednon-alignment
It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC.
It was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet bloccommunist blocEastern Europe
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality.
Joseph Stalin's control of the Eastern Bloc was tested by the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and the Tito–Stalin Split for control of Socialist Yugoslavia, the Chinese Communist Revolution (1949), and the PRC's participation in the Korean War.

Breakup of Yugoslavia

dissolution of Yugoslaviabreak-up of Yugoslaviadissolution of SFR Yugoslavia
The federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars.

Economy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Yugoslav economycollapse of the Yugoslav economyeconomic life
Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation.
The occupation and liberation struggle in World War II left Yugoslavia's infrastructure devastated.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaRomanian communist regime
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed.
Albania and Yugoslavia abandoned Communism between 1990 and 1992.

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Communist Party of YugoslaviaCommunist Partycommunist
The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.

Communist state

communist regimecommunistcommunist countries
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality.
Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

Bulgariacommunist regimeCommunist period
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Geographically, the People's Republic of Bulgaria had the same borders as present-day Bulgaria and it bordered the Black Sea to the east; Romania to the north; Yugoslavia (via Serbia and Macedonia) to the west and Greece and Turkey to the south.

Case Black

Battle of SutjeskaOperation SchwarzSutjeska
In the Battle of the Neretva and the Battle of the Sutjeska, the 20,000-strong Partisan Main Operational Group engaged a force of around 150,000 combined Axis troops.
Case Black (Fall Schwarz), also known as the Fifth Enemy Offensive in Yugoslav historiography and often identified with its final phase, the Battle of the Sutjeska was a joint attack by the Axis taking place from 15 May to 16 June 1943, which aimed to destroy the main Yugoslav Partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in south-eastern Bosnia.

Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia

AVNOJAnti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of YugoslaviaSecond Session of the AVNOJ
The SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko vijeće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.

Aftermath of World War II

post-World War IIpost-wardefeat in World War II
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Yugoslavia emerged as an independent Communist state allied but not aligned with the Soviet Union, owing to the independent nature of the military victory of the Partisans of Josip Broz Tito during World War II in Yugoslavia.

Brotherhood and unity

Brotherhood! Unity!Bratstvo i jedinstvocountry's official inter-ethnic guiding principle
Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, and representing the republican, left-wing, and socialist elements of the Yugoslav political spectrum.
Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Yugoslavia's post-war inter-ethnic policy.

Yugoslav Partisans

PartisansPartisanYugoslav Partisan
Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans.
Because of this, their short name became simply the "Partisans" (capitalized), and stuck henceforward (the adjective "Yugoslav" is used sometimes in exclusively non-Yugoslav sources to distinguish them from other partisan movements).

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

YugoslaviaKingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesYugoslav
Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
In 1944, after pressure from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the King recognized the government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia as the legitimate government.

CERN

European Organization for Nuclear ResearchEuropean Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)Physics community
It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC.
The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

Central Europe

CentralCentral Europeanmiddle Europe
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe.

Belgrade Offensive

liberation of Belgradeliberatedliberation
Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia, was liberated with the help of the Soviet Red Army in October 1944, and the formation of a new Yugoslav government was postponed until 2 November 1944, when the Belgrade Agreement was signed and the provisional government formed.
In August 1943, the German Wehrmacht had two army formations deployed in the Balkans: Army Group E in Greece and the 2nd Panzer Army in Yugoslavia and Albania.

OZNA

Yugoslav secret policesecret policeDepartment for People's Protection
Indeed, voting was on a single list of People's Front candidates with provision for opposition votes to be cast in separate voting boxes, but this procedure made electors identifiable by OZNA agents.
The Department for People's Protection or OZNA (Odjeljenje za zaštitu naroda or Odeljenje za zaštitu naroda, Одељење за заштиту нaрода; Одделение за заштита на народот; Oddelek za zaščito naroda) was the security agency of Communist Yugoslavia that existed between 1944 and 1952.

Free Territory of Trieste

TriesteTrieste crisisFree Territory of '''Trieste''', Zone A
The Free Territory of Trieste was established, and separated into Zone A and Zone B, administered by the western Allies and Yugoslavia respectively.
The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste, Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; ) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.

Greek Civil War

civil warGreececivil war in Greece
Meanwhile, civil war raged in Greece – Yugoslavia's southern neighbor – and the Yugoslav government was determined to bring about a communist victory.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος [Πόλεμος], o Emfýlios [Pólemos], "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army — backed by the United Kingdom and the United States — and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) — the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) — backed by Yugoslavia and Albania as well as by Bulgaria.

Italy

🇮🇹ItalianITA
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy of 1947, most of Julian March was lost to Yugoslavia and, later, the Free Territory of Trieste was divided between the two states.

Vlado Dapčević

Vladimir Dapčević
Yugoslavia dispatched significant assistance, in terms of arms and ammunition, supplies, military experts on partisan warfare (such as General Vladimir Dapčević), and even allowed the Greek forces to use Yugoslav territory as a safe haven.
Vladimir "Vlado" Dapčević (14 June 1917 – 12 July 2001) was a Montenegrin and Yugoslav communist and revolutionary who fought as a Partisan against Axis occupation troops and forces of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.

Aleksandar Ranković

Aleksandar Leka RankovićAlexander RankovicRanković
The letter also named a number of high-ranking officials as "dubious Marxists" (Milovan Đilas, Aleksandar Ranković, Boris Kidrič, and Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo) inviting Tito to purge them, and thus cause a rift in his own party.
Aleksandar Ranković (nom de guerre Leka; ; 28 November 1909 – 19 August 1983) was a Yugoslav communist of Serb origin, considered to be the third most powerful man in Yugoslavia after Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj.