Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR YugoslaviaYugoslavformer Yugoslaviaformer YugoslavFederal People's Republic of YugoslaviaSFRYCommunist YugoslaviaSocialist Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.wikipedia
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Non-Aligned Movement

Nonaligned MovementNAMnon-aligned
It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a planned economy to market-based socialism. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC.
Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Socialist Republic of Croatia

SR CroatiaCroatiaPR Croatia
The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (Croatia and Slovenia) seceding.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia (Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska) was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia.

Josip Broz Tito

TitoMarshal TitoPresident Tito
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality.
After the war, he was selected as Prime Minister (1944–1963), and President (later President for Life) (1953–1980) of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).

Breakup of Yugoslavia

dissolution of Yugoslaviabreak-up of Yugoslaviabreakup
The federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet blocCommunist BlocSocialist Bloc
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality.
Soviet control of the Eastern Bloc was tested by the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and the Tito–Stalin Split over the direction of the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Chinese Communist Revolution (1949), and China's participation in the Korean War.

Communist state

Communist regimecommunist countriescommunist
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality.
Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaCommunist Romania
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (Croatia and Slovenia) seceding.
Albania and Yugoslavia abandoned Communism between 1990 and 1992.

Planned economy

command economycentrally planned economyplanned economies
It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a planned economy to market-based socialism.
The majority of countries adopting socialism (including those based on the Soviet model) have used central planning, though a minority (such as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) have adopted some degree of market socialism.

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Communist Party of YugoslaviaCommunist PartyPresident of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, (Savez Komunista Jugoslavije) known until 1952 as the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička Partija Jugoslavije), was the founding and ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.

Economy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Economy of YugoslaviaYugoslav economy1950-1989
Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation.
The occupation and liberation struggle in World War II left Yugoslavia's infrastructure devastated.

Death and state funeral of Josip Broz Tito

funeralhis deathTito's death
Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation.
He was an anti-Nazi hero of the Second World War, a liberation fighter, the father of the second Yugoslavia, and a very able statesman.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

BulgariaCommunist BulgariaBulgarian People's Republic
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Geographically, the People's Republic of Bulgaria had the same borders as present-day Bulgaria and it bordered the Black Sea to the east; Romania to the north; Yugoslavia (via Serbia and Macedonia) to the west and Greece and Turkey to the south.

Case Black

Battle of SutjeskaBattle of the SutjeskaOperation Schwarz
In the Battle of the Neretva and the Battle of the Sutjeska, the 20,000-strong Partisan Main Operational Group engaged a force of around 150,000 combined Axis troops.
Case Black (Fall Schwarz), also known as the Fifth Enemy Offensive in Yugoslav historiography and often identified with its final phase, the Battle of the Sutjeska was a joint attack by the Axis taking place from 15 May to 16 June 1943, which aimed to destroy the main Yugoslav Partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in south-eastern Bosnia.

Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia

AVNOJAnti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of YugoslaviaSecond Session of the AVNOJ
The SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko vijeće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.

Socialist Republic of Slovenia

SR SloveniaSloveniaPR Slovenia
The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (Croatia and Slovenia) seceding.
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Socialistična republika Slovenija, Socijalistička Republika Slovenija / Социјалистичка Република Словенија) was one of the six republics forming the post-World War II country of Yugoslavia.

Aftermath of World War II

post-World War IIpost-war1945
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Yugoslavia emerged as an independent Communist state allied but not aligned with the Soviet Union, owing to the independent nature of the military victory of the Partisans of Josip Broz Tito during World War II in Yugoslavia.

CERN

European Organization for Nuclear ResearchEuropean Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)European Laboratory for Particle Physics
It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC.
The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

Yugoslav Partisans

PartisansPartisanYugoslav Partisan
Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans.
The Communist Party of Yugoslavia formally decided to launch an armed uprising on 4 July, a date which was later marked as Fighter's Day – a public holiday in the SFR Yugoslavia.

Brotherhood and unity

Brotherhood! Unity!Bratstvo i jedinstvocountry's official inter-ethnic guiding principle
Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, and representing the republican, left-wing, and socialist elements of the Yugoslav political spectrum.
Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Yugoslavia's post-war inter-ethnic policy.

Belgrade Offensive

liberation of BelgradeBelgrade Operationliberation
Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia, was liberated with the help of the Soviet Red Army in October 1944, and the formation of a new Yugoslav government was postponed until 2 November 1944, when the Belgrade Agreement was signed and the provisional government formed.
In August 1943, the German Wehrmacht had two army formations deployed in the Balkans: Army Group E in Greece and the 2nd Panzer Army in Yugoslavia and Albania.

OZNA

Department of National SecurityYugoslav secret policeDepartment for the Protection of the People
Indeed, voting was on a single list of People's Front candidates with provision for opposition votes to be cast in separate voting boxes, but this procedure made electors identifiable by OZNA agents.
The Department for People's Protection or OZNA (Odjeljenje za zaštitu naroda or Odeljenje za zaštitu naroda, Одељење за заштиту нaрода; Одделение за заштита на народот; Oddelek za zaščito naroda) was the security agency of Communist Yugoslavia that existed between 1944 and 1952.

Free Territory of Trieste

TriesteTrieste crisisFree Territory of '''Trieste''', Zone A
The Free Territory of Trieste was established and separated into Zone A and Zone B, administered by the western Allies and Yugoslavia respectively.
The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste; Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; ) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.

Central Europe

CentralMiddle EuropeCentral European
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe.

Vlado Dapčević

Vladimir Dapčević
Yugoslavia dispatched significant assistance, in terms of arms and ammunition, supplies, military experts on partisan warfare (such as General Vladimir Dapčević), and even allowed the Greek forces to use Yugoslav territory as a safe haven.
Vladimir "Vlado" Dapčević (14 June 1917 – 12 July 2001) was a Montenegrin and Yugoslav communist and revolutionary who fought as a Partisan against Axis occupation troops and forces of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.