Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaCommunist RomaniaPeople's Republic of RomaniaRomanian communist regimeRomanian People's RepublicCommunist periodCommunist eracommunist authoritiesCommunist
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.wikipedia
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Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet blocCommunist BlocSocialist Bloc
The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions.
Generally, in Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc referred to the USSR and its East European satellite states in the Comecon (East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania); in Asia, the Soviet Bloc comprised the Mongolian People's Republic, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of Kampuchea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the People's Republic of China (before the Sino-Soviet split in 1961).

Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae CeauşescuCeauşescuCeaușescu
In the 1960s and 1970s, Nicolae Ceaușescu became General Secretary of the Communist Party (1965), Chairman of the State Council (1967) and assumed the newly established role of President in 1974.
He was the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989 and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania.

SovRom

SovRomsSovromtractor
At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "SovRoms", new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income.
The SovRoms (plural of SovRom) were economic enterprises established in Romania following the Communist takeover at the end of World War II, in place until 1954–1956 (when they were dissolved by the Romanian authorities).

Romanian Revolution

Romanian Revolution of 19891989 RevolutionRevolution
However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania during December 1989 as a part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakiainvasion of CzechoslovakiaOperation Danube
Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the West.
Approximately 250,000 Warsaw pact troops attacked Czechoslovakia that night, with Romania and Albania refusing to participate.

Warsaw Pact

Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions.
Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany), which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.
The events of the full-blown revolution began in Poland in 1989 and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Romania.

Kingdom of Romania

RomaniaRomanian KingdomRomanian
As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies.
The influence of the neighboring Soviet Union and the policies followed by Communist-dominated coalition governments ultimately led to the abolition of the monarchy, with Romania becoming a People's Republic on the last day of 1947.

July Theses

1971grew around himmini-cultural revolution
However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.
This quasi-Maoist speech marked the beginning of a "mini cultural revolution" in Communist Romania, launching a Neo-Stalinist offensive against cultural autonomy, a return to the strict guidelines of socialist realism and attacks on non-compliant intellectuals.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.
Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

Moldavian SSRMoldovan SSRMoldavia
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.
Geographically, the Moldavian SSR was bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies. Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.
The country bordered Afghanistan, China, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary, Iran, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Turkey from 1945 to 1991.

Allied Commission

Allied Control CommissionAllied Commission for AustriaControl Commission
On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed Romanian Workers' Party was installed.
The Commission was one of the tools used by the Soviet Union to impose communist rule in Romania.

Petru Groza

Petru Groza (1)Romanian socialist leader
This changed in March 1945, when Dr. Petru Groza of the Ploughmen's Front, a party closely associated with the Communists, became prime minister.
Petru Groza (7 December 1884 – 7 January 1958) was a Romanian politician, best known as the Prime Minister of the first Communist Party-dominated government under Soviet occupation during the early stages of the Communist regime in Romania.

Nicolae Rădescu

Nicolae RadescuRădescu
The Communists, as all political parties, played only a minor role in the first Michael's wartime governments, headed by General Constantin Sănătescu, though their presence increased in the one led by Nicolae Rădescu.
He was the last pre-communist rule Prime Minister of Romania, serving from 7 December 1944 to 1 March 1945.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

BulgariaCommunist BulgariaBulgarian People's Republic
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.
Geographically, the People's Republic of Bulgaria had the same borders as present-day Bulgaria and it bordered the Black Sea to the east; Romania to the north; Yugoslavia (via Serbia and Macedonia) to the west and Greece and Turkey to the south.

1946 Romanian general election

1946 election1946 general electionin 1946
In the elections of 19 November 1946, the Communist-led Bloc of Democratic Parties (BPD) claimed 84% of the votes.
The event marked a decisive step towards the disestablishment of the Romanian monarchy and the proclamation of a Communist regime at the end of the following year.

Anti-religious persecution in Communist Romania

RomaniaReligious persecution in Communist RomaniaRomania Anti-Religious Campaign
Although the 1948 Constitution and its two successors provided a simulacrum of religious freedom, the regime in fact had a policy of promoting Marxist-Leninist atheism, coupled with religious persecution.
The Romania Anti-Religious Campaign, refers to the anti-religious campaign initiated by the Socialist Republic of Romania, which under the doctrine of Marxist–Leninist atheism, took a hostile stance against religion, and set its sights on the ultimate goal of an atheistic society, wherein religion would be recognized as the ideology of the bourgeoisie.

National Peasants' Party

National PeasantsNational Peasant PartyPNȚ
After forming a government, the Communists moved to eliminate the role of the centrist parties; notably, the National Peasants' Party was accused of espionage after it became clear in 1947 that their leaders were meeting secretly with United States officials.
The communist regime imprisoned its members in large numbers, though some on the pro-communist left were allowed to go free.

Hungarian People's Republic

HungaryPeople's Republic of HungaryCommunist Hungary
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.
Geographically, it bordered Romania and the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) to the east; Yugoslavia to the southwest; Czechoslovakia to the north and Austria to the west.

Bucharest

Bucharest, RomaniaBucureştiBucurești
On 8 November 1945, King Michael's name day, a pro-monarchy demonstration in front of the Royal Palace in Bucharest escalated into street fights between opposition supporters and soldiers, police and pro-government workers, resulting in dozens of killed and wounded; Soviet officers restrained Romanian soldiers and police from firing on civilians, and Soviet troops restored order.
After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing.

Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu

Lucreţiu PătrăşcanuL. PatrascanuLucretiu Patrascanu
Later historiography claimed to identify the following factions: the "Muscovites", notably Ana Pauker and Vasile Luca, who had spent the war in Moscow, the "Prison Communists", notably Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who had been imprisoned during the war and the somewhat less firmly Stalinist "Secretariat Communists", notably Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu that had made it through the Antonescu years by hiding within Romania and had participated in the broad governments immediately after King Michael's 1944 coup.
Pătrășcanu rose to a government position before the end of World War II and, after having disagreed with Stalinist tenets on several occasions, eventually came into conflict with the Romanian Communist government of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.

Vasile Luca

Luca
Later historiography claimed to identify the following factions: the "Muscovites", notably Ana Pauker and Vasile Luca, who had spent the war in Moscow, the "Prison Communists", notably Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who had been imprisoned during the war and the somewhat less firmly Stalinist "Secretariat Communists", notably Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu that had made it through the Antonescu years by hiding within Romania and had participated in the broad governments immediately after King Michael's 1944 coup.
Noted for his activities in the Ukrainian SSR in 1940–1941, he sided with Ana Pauker during World War II, and returned to Romania to serve as the minister of finance and one of the most recognizable leaders of the Communist regime.

Transylvania

TransylvanianTransilvaniaSiebenbürgen
Romanian forces fought under Soviet command, driving through Northern Transylvania into Hungary proper, and on into Czechoslovakia and Austria.
From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, along with the rest of Romania, was under a communist regime.