Socialist state

socialist republicsocialistsocialist countriessocialist statessocialist countrysocialist systemworkers' republicsocialist republicssocialist societystate
A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.wikipedia
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Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. It is a political ideology (or world view), a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy.

Dictatorship of the proletariat

proletarian dictatorshipdictatorship of proletariatleading role of The Party
Extrapolating from this, Marx described a post-revolutionary government on the part of the working class or proletariat as a dictatorship of the proletariat because the economic interests of the proletariat would have to guide state affairs and policy during a transitional state.

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Ukrainian SSRSoviet UkraineUkraine
In 1922, it merged with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic into a single federal union - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Russian SFSRRSFSRSoviet Russia
The first socialist state was the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, established in 1917.
The Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 (October Revolution) as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism.

Laos

LaotianLao People's Democratic RepublicLao
Similarly in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, direct references to communism are not included in its founding documents even though it gives direct power to the governing ruling party, the Marxist-Leninist Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
Laos (, ; ລາວ, Lāo ), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Soviet-type economic planning

Soviet-type economiesSoviet economic modelAnalysis of Soviet-type economic planning
The Eastern Bloc was a political and economic bloc of Soviet-aligned socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe which adhered to Marxism-Leninism, Soviet-style governance and a Soviet-style command economy.
Soviet-type economic planning (STP) is the specific model of centralized planning employed by Marxist–Leninist socialist states modeled on the economy of the Soviet Union.

Communist state

Communist regimecommunist countriescommunist
The term "communist state" is often used interchangeably in the West specifically when referring to single-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist, or Titoist in case of Yugoslavia political parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) used to be a Marxist–Leninist state.
However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as Socialist or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.

Vietnam

Viet NamSocialist Republic of VietnamViệt Nam
The preamble to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was re-unified under the Communist party in 1976 and the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party is to "guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism (and the progress toward a communist society)".
After North and South Vietnam were reunified under a unitary socialist government in 1976, the country became economically and politically isolated until 1986, when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into world politics and the global economy.

Marxism

MarxistMarxistsMarxist ideology
Karl Marx and subsequent thinkers in the Marxist tradition conceive of the state as representing the interests of the ruling class, partially out of material necessity for the smooth operation of the modes of production it presides over.
The Bolsheviks established the first socialist state based on the ideas of Soviet Democracy and Leninism.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism-LeninismMarxist-LeninistMarxist–Leninist
The Eastern Bloc was a political and economic bloc of Soviet-aligned socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe which adhered to Marxism-Leninism, Soviet-style governance and a Soviet-style command economy. The term "communist state" is often used interchangeably in the West specifically when referring to single-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist, or Titoist in case of Yugoslavia political parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism.
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992).

Constitution of the People's Republic of China

constitutionChinese ConstitutionConstitution of China
The People's Republic of China was founded on September 24, 1949, and proclaims itself to be a "Socialist state" in its 1982 constitution.
Article 1 of the State Constitution describes China as "a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship" meaning that the system is based on an alliance of the working classes—in communist terminology, the workers and peasants—and is led by the Communist Party, the vanguard of the working class.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society.

Stalinism

StalinistStalinistsStalinization
With the failure of the worldwide revolution, or at least European revolution, envisaged by Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Russian Civil War and finally Lenin's death, war measures that were deemed to be temporary, such as forced requisition of food and the lack of democratic control, became permanent and a tool to boost Joseph Stalin's power, leading to the emergence of Marxism–Leninism and Stalinism as well as the notion that socialism can be created and exist in a single state.
The NEP had been implemented by Lenin in order to ensure the survival of the socialist state following seven years of war (1914–1921, World War I from 1914 to 1917 and the subsequent Civil War) and had rebuilt Soviet production to its 1913 levels.

Socialist economics

socialist economysocialistsocialist economies
The Soviet Union proclaimed itself a socialist state and proclaimed its commitment to building a socialist economy in its 1936 Constitution and a subsequent 1977 Constitution.
However, the economies of the former Socialist states, excluding Yugoslavia, were based on bureaucratic, top-down administration of economic directives and micromanagement of the worker in the workplace inspired by capitalist models of scientific management.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The People's Republic of China was founded on September 24, 1949, and proclaims itself to be a "Socialist state" in its 1982 constitution.
China is a unitary one-party socialist republic and is one of the few remaining Communist states.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
In 1922, it merged with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic into a single federal union - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Following Joseph Stalin's consolidation of power in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and centralization of political power, Leon Trotsky condemned the Soviet government's policies for lacking widespread democratic participation on the part of the population and for suppressing workers' democratic participation in the management of the economy.
Significant amounts of Soviet resources during the Cold War were allocated in aid to the other socialist states.

Raúl Castro

Raul CastroRaúlRaúl Castro Ruz
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the socialist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.

Cuba

Republic of CubaCubanCUB
The preamble to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was re-unified under the Communist party in 1976 and the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party is to "guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism (and the progress toward a communist society)".
Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution.

Capitalist state

dictatorship of the bourgeoisiebourgeois statecapitalist
Because this involves governance and laws passed in the interest of the bourgeoisie as a whole and because government officials either come from the bourgeoisie or are dependent upon their interests, Marx characterized the capitalist state as a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPC has emphasised its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states.

October Revolution

Bolshevik RevolutionRussian Revolutionrevolution
Following the October Revolution in Russia, the Bolsheviks consolidated their power and sought to control and direct the social and economic affairs of the state and broader Russian society in order to safeguard against counterrevolutionary insurrection, foreign invasion and to promote socialist consciousness among the Russian population while simultaneously promoting economic development.
The October Revolution marks the inception of the first communist government in Russia, and thus the first large-scale socialist state in world history.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin
Whereas Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and classical Marxist thinkers had little to say about the organization of the state in a socialist society, presuming the modern state to be specific to the capitalist mode of production, Vladimir Lenin pioneered the idea of a revolutionary state based on his theory of the revolutionary Vanguard party and organizational principles of democratic centralism.
He thus supported wars of national liberation, accepting that such conflicts might be necessary for a minority group to break away from a socialist state, because socialist states are not "holy or insured against mistakes or weaknesses".

North Korea

Democratic People's Republic of KoreaNorthDPRK
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) used to be a Marxist–Leninist state.
North Korea officially describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, and formally holds elections, though they have been described by outside observers as sham elections.

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
The term "communist state" is often used interchangeably in the West specifically when referring to single-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist, or Titoist in case of Yugoslavia political parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism.
However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic".

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Belarusian SSRByelorussian SSRBelorussian SSR
In 1922, it merged with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic into a single federal union - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Byelorussia was a one-party socialist republic, governed by the Communist Party of Byelorussia, a branch within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU/KPSS).