Society

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.
Canis lupus social ethology
San people in Botswana start a fire by hand.
Ploughing with oxen in the 15th century
Cleric, knight and peasant; an example of feudal societies
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City, which houses one of the world's largest political organizations
The Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue)
World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva
The Seoul Cyworld control room

Group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

- Society
The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

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Gray wolves hunting in a presocial pack encircle an American bison.

Sociality

Gray wolves hunting in a presocial pack encircle an American bison.
The mouse lemur is a nocturnal, solitary-but-social lemur native to Madagascar.
Giant honey bees cover the honeycomb of their nest.

Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.

Human

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and large, complex brains.

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and large, complex brains.

Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early human migration during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.
Routes taken by barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire during the Migration Period
Humans and their domesticated animals represent 96% of all mammalian biomass on earth, whereas all wild mammals represent only 4%.
Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed. The female model is wearing red nail polish on her toenails and a ring.
A graphical representation of the standard human karyotype, including both the male (XY) and female (XX) sex chromosomes.
A 10 mm human embryo at 5 weeks
Humans living in Bali, Indonesia, preparing a meal.
Changes in the number and order of genes (A-D) create genetic diversity within and between population
A Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, and an Egyptian, drawing by an unknown artist after a mural of the tomb of Seti I.
Drawing of the human brain, showing several important structures
Illustration of grief from Charles Darwin's 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Parents can display familial love for their children
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian
The SCMaglev, the fastest train in the world clocking in at 375 mph as of 2015
Shango, the Orisha of fire, lightning, and thunder, in the Yoruba religion, depicted on horseback
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. China circa 700.
Humans often live in family-based social structures.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City, which houses one of the world's largest political organizations
The Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue)

Social interactions between humans have established a wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which bolster human society.

Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in August 2014

Hunter-gatherer

Human living a lifestyle in which most or all food is obtained by foraging and hunting (pursuing and killing of wild animals, including catching fish), in the same way that most natural omnivores do.

Human living a lifestyle in which most or all food is obtained by foraging and hunting (pursuing and killing of wild animals, including catching fish), in the same way that most natural omnivores do.

Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in August 2014
Hunter-gatherers (yellow) 4,000 years ago.
A global map illustrating the decline of foraging/fishing/hunting/gathering around the world.
A San man from Namibia. Many San still live as hunter-gatherers.
Mbendjele meat sharing
A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment.
Savanna Pumé couple on a hunting and gathering trip in the llanos of Venezuela. The man carries a bow, three steel-tipped arrows, and a hat that resembles the head of a jabiru stork as camouflage to approach near enough to deer for a shot. The woman carries a steel-tipped digging stick and a carrying basket for collecting wild tubers.
A Shoshone encampment in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, photographed by Percy Jackson, 1870
Three Aboriginal Australians on Bathurst Island in 1939. According to Peterson (1998), the island population was isolated for 6,000 years until the 18th century. In 1929, three-quarters of the population supported themselves on bush tucker.
Negritos (Negrillos) in the Philippines, 1595.

Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to the more sedentary agricultural societies, which rely mainly on cultivating crops and raising domesticated animals for food production, although the boundaries between the two ways of living are not completely distinct.

Map of Southwest Asia showing the main archaeological sites of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, c. undefined 7500 BCE.

Neolithic Revolution

The wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

The wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

Map of Southwest Asia showing the main archaeological sites of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, c. undefined 7500 BCE.
Evolution of temperatures in the Post-Glacial period after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) according to Greenland ice cores. The birth of agriculture corresponds to the period of quickly rising temperature at the end of the cold spell of the Younger Dryas and the beginning of the long and warm period of the Holocene.
Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the Papua New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).
Associations of wild cereals and other wild grasses in Israel
Composite sickles for cereal harvesting at 23,000-Years-Old
An "Orange slice" sickle blade element with inverse, discontinuous retouch on each side, not denticulated. Found in large quantities at Qaraoun II and often with Heavy Neolithic tools in the flint workshops of the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon. Suggested by James Mellaart to be older than the Pottery Neolithic of Byblos (around 8,400 cal. BP).
Neolithic grindstone or quern for processing grain
Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BP
The Neolithic is characterized by fixed human settlements and the invention of agriculture from c. 10,000 BP. Reconstitution of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B housing in Aşıklı Höyük, modern Turkey.
Spread of farming from Southwest Asia to Europe, between 9600 and 4000 BCE
Ancient European Neolithic farmers were genetically closest to modern Near-Eastern/ Anatolian populations. Genetic matrilineal distances between European Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture populations (5,500–4,900 calibrated BP) and modern Western Eurasian populations.
Spatial distribution of rice, millet and mixed farming sites in Neolithic China (He et al., 2017)
Possible language family homelands, and likely routes of early rice transfer (c. 3,500 to 500 BCE). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue. (Bellwood, 2011)
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific (Bellwood in Chambers, 2008)
Dromedary caravan in Algeria
World population (estimated) did not rise for a few millennia after the Neolithic revolution.
Domesticated cow being milked in Ancient Egypt
Map of the spread of Neolithic farming cultures from the Near-East to Europe, with dates.
Modern distribution of the haplotypes of PPNB farmers
Genetic distance between PPNB farmers and modern populations

During the next millennia it transformed the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns.

Pygmy music has been polyphonic well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka, Aka, Efe, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music.

Culture

Pygmy music has been polyphonic well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka, Aka, Efe, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music.
The Beatles exemplified changing cultural dynamics, not only in music, but fashion and lifestyle. Over a half century after their emergence, they continue to have a worldwide cultural impact.
A 19th-century engraving showing Australian natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1770
An Assyrian child wearing traditional clothing.
Full-length profile portrait of a Turkmen woman, standing on a carpet at the entrance to a yurt, dressed in traditional clothing and jewelry
Johann Herder called attention to national cultures.
Adolf Bastian developed a universal model of culture.
British poet and critic Matthew Arnold viewed "culture" as the cultivation of the humanist ideal.
British anthropologist Edward Tylor was one of the first English-speaking scholars to use the term culture in an inclusive and universal sense.
Petroglyphs in modern-day Gobustan, Azerbaijan, dating back to 10,000 BCE and indicating a thriving culture
An example of folkloric dancing in Colombia.
Nowruz is a good sample of popular and folklore culture that is celebrated by people in more than 22 countries with different nations and religions, at the 1st day of spring. It has been celebrated by diverse communities for over 7,000 years
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan. Visual art is one expression of culture.
Cognitive tools suggest a way for people from certain culture to deal with real-life problems, like Suanpan for Chinese to perform mathematical calculation
A fact finding mission by Blue Shield International in Egypt during the 2011 revolution to protect the cultural assets there.

Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.

Social science

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.
Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy
Map of the Earth
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London
Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics
Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology.
Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Band society

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

A band society, sometimes called a camp, or in older usage, a horde, is the simplest form of human society.

A medical professional shows students a model of human anatomy.

Social status

Level of social value a person is considered to possess.

Level of social value a person is considered to possess.

A medical professional shows students a model of human anatomy.

More specifically, it refers to the relative level of respect, honour, assumed competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

Individuals in groups are connected to each other by social relationships.

Social group

In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

Individuals in groups are connected to each other by social relationships.

For example, a society can be viewed as a large social group.

Portrait "Redenção de Cam" (1895), showing a Brazilian family becoming "whiter" each generation.

Race (human categorization)

Portrait "Redenção de Cam" (1895), showing a Brazilian family becoming "whiter" each generation.

A race is a categorization of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into groups generally viewed as distinct within a given society.