A report on Society of Jesus

ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits
Ignatius of Loyola
A fresco depicting Ignatius receiving the papal bull from Pope Paul III was created after 1743 by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc.
Jesuits at Akbar's court in India,
Ratio Studiorum, 1598
Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779
Francis Xavier
The Spanish missionary José de Anchieta was, together with Manuel da Nóbrega, the first Jesuit that Ignacio de Loyola sent to America.
Bell made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church run by Jesuits in Japan, 1576–1587
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi in the 1607 Chinese publication of Euclid's Elements
Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by Philippe Couplet, Prospero Intorcetta, Christian Herdtrich, and François de Rougemont at Paris in 1687
A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China
Bressani map of 1657 depicting the martyrdom of Jean de Brébeuf
Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó in the 18th century, the first permanent Jesuit mission in Baja California, established by Juan María de Salvatierra in 1697
Main altar of the Jesuit colegio in Tepozotlan, now the Museo Nacional del Virreinato
Mexican-born Jesuit Francisco Clavijero (1731–1787) wrote an important history of Mexico.
Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) text on the Americas
Peter Claver ministering to African slaves at Cartagena
Samuel Fritz's 1707 map showing the Amazon and the Orinoco
Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana mission in Paraguay, founded by Jesuits in 1706
Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil
Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil
Visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the Jesuit-run Pontifical Gregorian University
Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope
Jesuit Alfred Delp, member of the Kreisau Circle that operated within Nazi Germany was executed in February 1945
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schall and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu.
The Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Basque Country, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola
History of the Jesuit missions in India, China and Japan (Luis de Guzmán, 1601).
The Church of the Gesù in Rome, is the mother church of the Jesuits.
Iglesia de La Compañía, Quito, Ecuador, interior with gold leaf
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris, France
Jesuit church, Cuzco, Peru
Colegio de Belén, Havana, "The Palace of Education"
Christ the King Church in the Ateneo de Naga University campus, Naga City, Philippines
Fordham University Church at Rose Hill, Bronx, New York, USA
St. John's Church in Creighton University campus, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Holy Name of Jesus Church in the Loyola University New Orleans campus, New Orleans Louisiana USA
The Church of the Gesu in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, is the school church of Marquette University.
St. Francis Xavier Church, a Jesuit parish church across the street from the Rockhurst University campus, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
St. Francis Xavier College Church in the Saint Louis University campus, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
The Santa Clara University's Mission Church is at the heart of Santa Clara University's historic campus Santa Clara, California, USA.
St. Ignatius Church, a Jesuit parish church in the University of San Francisco campus, San Francisco, California, USA
the Church of the Gesu, Philadelphia is the school church of St. Joseph's Preparatory School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The Church of the Gesu in Frascati, province of Rome, Italy
The Église du Gesù in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, church and cultural venue
Jakarta Cathedral, Indonesia
Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba, Argentina
Université de Namur, Belgium
University of the Sinos Valley, Brazil
St. Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Pontifical Xaverian University, Bogota, Colombia
Pontifical Catholic University, Ecuador
University of Ingolstadt, Germany
St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India
St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, India
Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy
Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
Elisabeth University of Music, Hiroshima, Japan.
St. Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
University of Pacific, Peru
Ateneo de Naga University, Philippines
Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea
University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain
Comillas Pontifical University, Spain
Fordham University, New York City, United States
Fairfield University, Bellarmine Hall, Fairfield, Connecticut, United States
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology, Frankfurt, Germany
Georgetown University, Washington DC, United States

Religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome.

- Society of Jesus
ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits

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Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.

Ignatius of Loyola

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Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.
The Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built atop the birthplace of the saint.
Ignatius in his armour, in a 16th-century painting
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced asceticism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.
Ignatius as Superior General
Statue of Saint Ignatius in the Church of the Gesù, Rome
Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675
Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius
Portrait by Pieter Paul Rubens
Visions of Ignatius, 1617–18, Peter Paul Rubens
The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times
A page from Spiritual Exercises

Ignatius of Loyola, S.J. (born Íñigo López de Oñaz y Loyola; Ignazio Loiolakoa; Ignacio de Loyola; Ignatius de Loyola; c. 23 October 1491 – 31 July 1556), venerated as Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits), and became its first Superior General, in Paris in 1541.

Counter-Reformation

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The period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolution.

The period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolution.

A copy of the Sixtine Vulgate, the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible printed in 1590 after many of the Council of Trent's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship
Confutatio Augustana (left) and Confessio Augustana (right) being presented to Charles V
A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving
This 1711 illustration for the Index Librorum Prohibitorum depicts the Holy Ghost supplying the book burning fire.
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Peter Paul Rubens was the great Flemish artist of the Counter-Reformation. He painted Adoration of the Magi in 1624.
Matanzas Inlet, Florida, where the survivors were killed
Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620)
End of the Reformation & Counter-Reformation (1648)
Johann Michael Rottmayr (1729): The Catholic faith defeats Protestant heresies; part of a fresco inside Karlskirche in Vienna

This was followed by the Somaschi Fathers in 1528, the Barnabites in 1530, the Ursulines in 1535, the Jesuits, canonically recognised in 1540, the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca in 1583, the Camillians in 1584, the Adorno Fathers in 1588, and finally the Piarists in 1621.

"The Society of Jesus expelled from the Kingdom of Portugal by the Royal Decree of 3 September 1759"; as a carrack sets sail from Portuguese shores in the background, a bolt of lightning strikes a Jesuit priest as he attempts to set a terrestrial globe, a mitre, and a royal crown on fire; a bag of gold coins and a closed book (symbols of wealth and control of education) lie at the priest's feet.

Suppression of the Society of Jesus

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"The Society of Jesus expelled from the Kingdom of Portugal by the Royal Decree of 3 September 1759"; as a carrack sets sail from Portuguese shores in the background, a bolt of lightning strikes a Jesuit priest as he attempts to set a terrestrial globe, a mitre, and a royal crown on fire; a bag of gold coins and a closed book (symbols of wealth and control of education) lie at the priest's feet.
The Marquis of Pombal, Portugal's prime-minister at the time, oversaw the suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal and its empire. Painting by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766.
Charles III of Spain, who ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish realms
Motín de Esquilache, Madrid, attributed to Francisco de Goya (ca. 1766, 1767)
Manuel de Roda, adviser to Charles III, who brought together an alliance of those opposed to the Jesuits
José de Gálvez, Visitador generál in New Spain (1765–71), was instrumental in the Jesuit expulsion in 1767 in Mexico, considered part of the Bourbon Reforms.
Francisco Javier Clavijero, Mexican Jesuit exiled to Italy. His history of ancient Mexico was a significant text for pride for contemporaries in New Spain. He is revered in modern Mexico as a creole patriot.
Bernardo Tanucci, adviser to Charles III, instrumental in the expulsion of the Jesuits in Naples
The former Jesuit Collegium Melitense in Valletta, which became the University of Malta after the suppression

The suppression of the Jesuits was the removal of all members of the Society of Jesus from most of the countries of Western Europe and their colonies beginning in 1759, and the abolishment of the order by the Holy See in 1773.

Superior General of the Society of Jesus

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Ignatius of Loyola, first Superior General
Pedro Arrupe
Saint Francis Borgia, depicted performing an exorcism, served as the third Superior General.

The Superior General of the Society of Jesus is the official title of the leader of the Society of Jesus – the Roman Catholic religious order which is also known as the Jesuits.

A painting of Saint Francis Xavier, held in the Kobe City Museum, Japan

Francis Xavier

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A painting of Saint Francis Xavier, held in the Kobe City Museum, Japan
The castle of the Xavier family was later acquired by the Society of Jesus.
Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris
Francisco Xavier taking leave of John III of Portugal for an expedition
Saint Francis Xavier preaching in Goa (1610), by André Reinoso
Conversion of the Paravars by Francis Xavier in South India, in a 19th-century colored lithograph
Voyages of Saint Francis Xavier
The Altar of St. Francis Xavier Parish in Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines. Saint Francis is the principal patron of the town, together with Our Lady of Escalera.
Casket of Saint Francis Xavier in the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Goa, India
Stained glass church window in Béthanie, Hong Kong, of St Francis Xavier baptizing a Chinese man
Fumaroles at Mt. Unzen, Japan
The Vision of St. Francis Xavier, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Statue of Santo Fransiskus Xaverius, at Jesuit Gereja Katedral Santa Perawan Maria Diangkat Ke Surga, in Jakarta, Indonesia
Statue of Saint Francis Xavier, at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, in Superior, Wisconsin, United States
Effigy of Saint Francis Xavier in the Monument to the Discoveries in Lisbon, Portugal
Statue of St. Francis Xavier at St. Xavier's School, Kolkata

Francis Xavier (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta; Latin: Franciscus Xaverius; Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa; French: François Xavier; Spanish: Francisco Javier; Portuguese: Francisco Xavier; 7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552), venerated as Saint Francis Xavier, was a Navarrese Catholic missionary and saint who was a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

The frontispiece of Athanasius Kircher's 1667 China Illustrata, depicting the Jesuit founders Francis Xavier and Ignatius of Loyola adoring the monogram of Christ in Heaven while Johann Adam Schall von Bell and Matteo Ricci labor on the China mission.

Jesuit China missions

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Part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.

Part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.

The frontispiece of Athanasius Kircher's 1667 China Illustrata, depicting the Jesuit founders Francis Xavier and Ignatius of Loyola adoring the monogram of Christ in Heaven while Johann Adam Schall von Bell and Matteo Ricci labor on the China mission.
"The Complete Map of the Myriad Countries" (Wanguo Quantu), Giulio Aleni's adaptation of Western geographic knowledge to Chinese cartographic standards (early 17th century)
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1629) in Chinese attire, by Peter Paul Rubens.
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements published in 1607.
Map of the Far East in 1602, by Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci (1552–1610)
The Chinese Jesuit Michael Alphonsius Shen Fu-Tsung visited France and Britain in 1684–1685. "The Chinese Convert" by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
A map of the 200-odd Jesuit churches and missions established across China.
The steam engine manufactured by Ferdinand Verbiest at the Qing Court in 1672.
Portrait of Johann Adam Schall
The Beitang Church was established in Beijing by the Jesuits in 1703.
A page from Mémoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences et les arts des Chinois, 1780.
Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, an introduction to Chinese history and philosophy published at Paris in 1687 by a team of Jesuits working under Philippe Couplet.
The 1734 map compiled by d'Anville based on the Jesuits' geographic research during the early 1700s
The French Jesuit Joseph-Marie Amiot (1718–1793) was official translator of Western languages for the Qianlong Emperor.
The Qianlong Emperor, by Charles-Eloi Asselin (1743–1805) after Giuseppe Panzi. Louvre Museum.

The missionary efforts and other work of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, between the 16th and 17th century played a significant role in continuing the transmission of knowledge, science, and culture between China and the West, and influenced Christian culture in Chinese society today.

A 1610 Chinese portrait of Ricci

Matteo Ricci

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A 1610 Chinese portrait of Ricci
Matteo Ricci's way from Macau to Beijing.
Matteo Ricci with Xu Guangqi (right)
Matteo Ricci Museum in Zhaoqing (肇庆, 崇禧塔), location of the ancient Catholic Church he helped found called 仙花寺.
Ricci's grave (利玛窦墓) in Beijing's Zhalan Cemetery.
An early 17th-century depiction of Ricci in Chinese robes.
Map of East Asia by Matteo Ricci in 1602.
Unattributed, very detailed, two-page colored edition (1604?), copy of the 1602 map with Japanese katakana transliterations of the phonetic Chinese characters.

Matteo Ricci (Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.

Pope Francis in 2021

Pope Francis

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Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013.

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013.

Pope Francis in 2021
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Bergoglio on 18 June 2008 giving a catechesis
Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio in 2008
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The stamp is dedicated to the pastoral visit of Francis to Azerbaijan on 2 October 2016
Francis opens the Holy Door, marking the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy
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Francis with Cuban leader Raúl Castro in September 2015
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Crowd at the Koševo City Stadium in Sarajevo, celebrating a mass with Francis, June 2015
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Francis is the first pope to be a member of the Society of Jesus, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first pope from outside Europe since Gregory III, a Syrian who reigned in the 8th century.

Joseph of Anchieta

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House of José de Anchieta in San Cristóbal de La Laguna (Tenerife).
José de Anchieta, by painter Benedito Calixto
Statue of Father Anchieta in Santos, Brazil
Anchieta in an 1807 engraving.
Monument to José de Anchieta in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife.

José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo (Joseph of Anchieta) (19 March 1534 – 9 June 1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

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Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the formation of the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, and also a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century.