Sociolinguistics

sociolinguisticsociolinguistsocio-linguisticssocio-linguisticsociolinguistssociolinguisticallysocial linguisticshistorical social networklanguageLanguage, culture and society
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.wikipedia
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Variety (linguistics)

varietiesvarietylect
It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables (e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc.) and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes.
In sociolinguistics, a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

Sociology of language

sociologist of languagesociology
It differs from sociology of language, which focuses on the effect of language on a society.
It is closely related to the field of sociolinguistics, which focuses on the effect of society on language.

Sociolect

sociolectssocialdemotic speech
As the usage of a language varies from place to place, language usage also varies among social classes, and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect is a form of language (non-standard dialect, restricted register) or a set of lexical items used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
This view of language is associated with the study of language in pragmatic, cognitive, and interactive frameworks, as well as in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology.

Language change

corruptioncorruptedlinguistic corruption
The study of the social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its foundation in the wave model of the late 19th century.
It is studied in several subfields of linguistics: historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, and evolutionary linguistics.

William Labov

LabovLabovianBill Labov
Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK.
William Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
Sociolinguistics overlaps considerably with pragmatics.
There is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, since both share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by usage in a speech community.

Thomas Callan Hodson

Hodson, Thomas CallanT. C. Hodson
The first attested use of the term sociolinguistics was by Thomas Callan Hodson in the title of his 1939 article "Sociolinguistics in India" published in Man in India.
Thomas Callan Hodson (1871–1953) was the first William Wyse Professor of Social Anthropology at the University of Cambridge, where he was a Fellow of St Catharine's College, notable for his writings on Indian anthropology and for coining the term sociolinguistics.

Basil Bernstein

elaborated code
Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK.
He worked on socio-linguistics and the connection between the manner of speaking and social organization.

Dialectology

dialectologistdialectologicaldialectologists
Sociolinguists might also study the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.

William Alexander Stewart

William StewartW. A. StewartWilliam A. Stewart
In the 1960s, William Stewart and Heinz Kloss introduced the basic concepts for the sociolinguistic theory of pluricentric languages, which describes how standard language varieties differ between nations (e.g. American/British/Canadian/Australian English; Austrian/German/Swiss German; Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian Serbo-Croatian ).
In the late 1960s, he explored the sociolinguistics of multilingualism, introducing the notions of polycentric languages, autonomy and heteronomy.

Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectal
Sociolinguists might also study the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
Another occasionally used criterion for discriminating dialects from languages is the sociolinguistic notion of linguistic authority.

Variable rules analysis

analysis of language variationvariable rulevariable rule program
He is especially noted for introducing the quantitative analysis of language variation and change, making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline.
In linguistics, variable rules analysis is a set of statistical analysis methods commonly used in sociolinguistics and historical linguistics to describe patterns of variation between alternative forms in language use.

Speech community

speech communitieslinguistic communitycommunity of speakers
Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves.
It is a concept mostly associated with sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics.

Variation (linguistics)

linguistic variationvariationlanguage variation
The study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment.

Linguistic anthropology

linguistic anthropologistlinguistic anthropologistslinguistic
It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology, and the distinction between the two fields has been questioned.

Prestige (sociolinguistics)

prestige dialectprestigeprestige variety
Crucial to sociolinguistic analysis is the concept of prestige; certain speech habits are assigned a positive or a negative value, which is then applied to the speaker.
The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages.

Vernacular

vernacular languagevernacular languagesvernacularization
For example, a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting.
Within sociolinguistics, the term "vernacular" has been applied to several concepts.

Hypercorrection

hypercorrecthypercorrectedhypercorrective
However, not being native upper-class speakers, they often hypercorrect, which involves overcorrecting their speech to the point of introducing new errors.
In sociolinguistics, hypercorrection is non-standard use of language that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of language-usage prescription.

Observer's paradox

Westinghouse effect
This type of speech is difficult if not impossible to elicit because of the Observer's Paradox.
In the field of sociolinguistics, the term Observer’s Paradox was coined by William Labov, who stated with regards to the term:

Social network (sociolinguistics)

social networksocial network theorysocial networks
Understanding language in society means that one also has to understand the social networks in which language is embedded.
In the field of sociolinguistics, social network describes the structure of a particular speech community.

Matched-guise test

matched-guise
Another Method is the Matched-guise test.
The matched-guise test is a sociolinguistic experimental technique used to determine the true feelings of an individual or community towards a specific language, dialect, or accent.

Abstand and ausbau languages

DachspracheAusbauspracheabstand
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.

Anthropological linguistics

cross-cultural linguisticsanthropological interpreterethnolinguists
In the 1960s and 1970s, sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics were often viewed as one single field of study, but they have since become more separate as more academic distance has been put between them.

Louis Gauchat

The social aspects of language were in the modern sense first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, and also by Louis Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received much attention in the West until much later.