Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologistssocialsociologicallysociological studiesSocial Psychologysociosociological factorsSociological study
Sociology is a study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life.wikipedia
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Microsociology

micromicro-sociologymicro-level
Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
Microsociology is one of the main levels of analysis (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.

Secularization

secularisationsecularizedsecularised
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
In sociology, secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution.
The disciplines include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, folkloristics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

Sociology of law

Sociological jurisprudencelegal sociologylaw and society
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.

Sociology of religion

sociologist of religionsociologists of religionreligion
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.

Deviance (sociology)

deviancedeviantdeviant behavior
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

Military sociology

sociology of the militaryimmersion in military culturemilitary
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
Military sociology is a subfield within sociology.

Medical sociology

medical sociologistsociology of medicinehealth-related behaviors
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
Medical sociology is the sociological analysis of medical organizations and institutions; the production of knowledge and selection of methods, the actions and interactions of healthcare professionals, and the social or cultural (rather than clinical or bodily) effects of medical practice.

Social order

ordersocial ordersmaintaining order
It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution.
The problem of order or Hobbesian problem, which is central to much of sociology, political science and political philosophy, is the question of how and why it is that social orders exist at all.

Mathematical sociology

mathematical sociologistMathematical theorymathematically
Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.
Mathematical sociology is the area of sociology that uses mathematics to construct social theories.

Computational sociology

computational social sciencecomputationalcomputationally
Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.

Sociology of punishment

penal
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The sociology of punishment seeks to understand why and how we punish; the general justifying aim of punishment and the principle of distribution.

Economic sociology

economic sociologistSociety for the Advancement of Socio-Economicsstudy of markets
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
As sociology arose primarily as a reaction to capitalist modernity, economics played a role in much classic sociological inquiry.

Social research and methods

social researchsociological researchsociological analysis
Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques.
Statistical sociological research, and indeed the formal academic discipline of sociology, began with the work of Émile Durkheim (1858–1917).

Verstehen

interpretative sociologyinterpretivetruth above positivism
The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society.
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.

Institution

institutionsinstitutionalsocial institutions
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
Institutions are a principal object of study in social sciences such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter described by Émile Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning").

Social network

networknetworkingnetworks
Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.
Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory.

Sociology of the Internet

Sociology of cyberspacehow people behave around themInternet sociology
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The sociology of the Internet in the stricter sense concerns the analysis of online communities (e.g. as found in newsgroups), virtual communities and virtual worlds, organizational change catalyzed through new media such as the Internet, and social change at-large in the transformation from industrial to informational society (or to information society).

Sociology of scientific knowledge

sociology of sciencesociologist of sciencesociologists of science
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
Sociologists of scientific knowledge study the development of a scientific field and attempt to identify points of contingency or interpretative flexibility where ambiguities are present.

Social stratification

social hierarchystratificationstratified
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
In sociology, for example, proponents of action theory have suggested that social stratification is commonly found in developed societies, wherein a dominance hierarchy may be necessary in order to maintain social order and provide a stable social structure.

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn KhaldounIbn Khaldūna fourteenth century Muslim historian
Some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa (Tunisia), to have been the first sociologist and the father of sociology (see Branches of the early Islamic philosophy); his Muqaddimah was perhaps the first work to advance social-scientific reasoning on social cohesion and social conflict.
He is widely considered as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.

Muqaddimah

MuqaddimaMuqadimmahAl-Muqaddimah
Some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa (Tunisia), to have been the first sociologist and the father of sociology (see Branches of the early Islamic philosophy); his Muqaddimah was perhaps the first work to advance social-scientific reasoning on social cohesion and social conflict.
Some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the social sciences of sociology, demography, and cultural history.

Auguste Comte

ComteComteanAuguste Compte
Sociology was later defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte (1798–1857) in 1838 as a new way of looking at society.
Comte is also seen as the founder of the academic discipline of sociology.

Social class

classsocial classesclasses
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.
Definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics, psychology and sociology.