Sociology of law

Sociological jurisprudencelegal sociologylaw and societylawlegal sociologistsocio-legalSocio-Legal Studiessociologylaw and sociologylaw sociologist
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.wikipedia
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Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Irrespective of whether sociology of law is defined as a sub-discipline of sociology, an approach within legal studies or a field of research in its own right, it remains intellectually dependent mainly on the traditions, methods and theories of mainstream sociology and, to a lesser extent, on other social sciences such as social anthropology, political science, social policy, criminology and psychology.
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.

Law

legallawslegal theory
Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology, but others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology. Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, jurisprudence, legal theory, law and economics and law and literature.
Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology.

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
The relationship between law and society was sociologically explored in the seminal works of both Max Weber and Émile Durkheim.
He remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge, morality, social stratification, religion, law, education, and deviance.

Jurisprudence

Legal Studieslawjuridical
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, jurisprudence, legal theory, law and economics and law and literature.
Despite its decline in popularity, legal realism continues to influence a wide spectrum of jurisprudential schools today, including critical legal studies, feminist legal theory, critical race theory, sociology of law, and law and economics.

Theodor Geiger

Theodor Geiger developed a close-knit analysis of the Marxist theory of law.
Theodor Julius Geiger (9 November 1891 in Munich, Germany - 16 June 1952) was a German socialist, lawyer and sociologist who studied Sociology of Law, social stratification and social mobility, methodology, and intelligentsia, among other things.

Regulation

regulationsregulatorygovernment regulation
Areas of socio-legal inquiry include the social development of legal institutions, forms of social control, legal regulation, the interaction between legal cultures, the social construction of legal issues, legal profession and the relation between law and social change.

Eugen Ehrlich

Eugen Ehrlich´s
Notably among these were Leon Petrazycki, Eugen Ehrlich and Georges Gurvitch.
He is widely regarded as one of the primary founders of the modern field of sociology of law.

Philip Selznick

However, other theorists in the sociology of law, such as Philip Selznick, argued that modern law became increasingly responsive to a society's needs and had to be approached morally as well.
A noted author in organizational theory, sociology of law and public administration, Selznick's work was groundbreaking in several fields in such books as The Moral Commonwealth, TVA and the Grass Roots, and Leadership in Administration.

Comparative law

comparativecomparative jurisprudencecomparative jurist
Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, jurisprudence, legal theory, law and economics and law and literature.

Law and economics

economic analysis of lawlaweconomic analysis
Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, jurisprudence, legal theory, law and economics and law and literature.
For example, research by members of the critical legal studies movement and the sociology of law considers many of the same fundamental issues as does work labeled "law and economics," though from a vastly different perspective.

Per Stjernquist

In Poland the work of Adam Podgórecki and his associates (often influenced by Petrazycki's ideas) was especially notable; in Sweden empirical research in sociology of law in this period was pioneered especially by Per Stjernquist, and in Norway by Vilhelm Aubert.
Per Stjernquist (1912–2005) was a Swedish law professor who was almost single-handedly responsible for establishing the teaching of the new field of sociology of law in Sweden from the 1960s.

Criminology

criminologistcriminologistscriminological
Irrespective of whether sociology of law is defined as a sub-discipline of sociology, an approach within legal studies or a field of research in its own right, it remains intellectually dependent mainly on the traditions, methods and theories of mainstream sociology and, to a lesser extent, on other social sciences such as social anthropology, political science, social policy, criminology and psychology.

Niklas Luhmann

LuhmannLuhmann, N.Luhmannian
Equally broad in orientation, but again different, is the autopoietic systems theory of the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, who presents law or "the legal system" as one of the ten function systems (see functional differentiation) of society.
Much of Luhmann's work directly deals with the operations of the legal system and his autopoietic theory of law is regarded as one of the more influential contributions to the sociology of law and socio-legal studies.

Leon Petrażycki

Leon PetrazyckiL.I. PetrazhitskyPetrazycki
Notably among these were Leon Petrazycki, Eugen Ehrlich and Georges Gurvitch. In Poland the work of Adam Podgórecki and his associates (often influenced by Petrazycki's ideas) was especially notable; in Sweden empirical research in sociology of law in this period was pioneered especially by Per Stjernquist, and in Norway by Vilhelm Aubert.
He is considered an important forerunner of the sociology of law.

Mavis Maclean

Professor Mavis Maclean
Notable practitioners of socio-legal studies include Professor Carol Smart, co-director of the Morgan Centre for the Study of Relationships and Personal Life, (named after the sociologist, David Morgan), as well as Professor Mavis Maclean and John Eekelaar who are joint directors of the Oxford Centre for Family Law and Policy (OXFLAP).
She has carried out socio-legal research at the University of Oxford since 1974, and in 2001 founded the Oxford Centre for Family Law and Policy (OXFLAP).

Legal culture

Areas of socio-legal inquiry include the social development of legal institutions, forms of social control, legal regulation, the interaction between legal cultures, the social construction of legal issues, legal profession and the relation between law and social change.

Richard Abel (lawyer)

Richard AbelRichard L. AbelRick Abel
Together with Richard Abel and Austin Sarat, Felstiner developed the idea of a disputes pyramid and the formula "naming, blaming, claiming", which refers to different stages of conflict resolution and levels of the pyramid.
Richard L. Abel (born September 13, 1941) is a Professor of Law (now emeritus), a specialist in African Law Studies and a renowned socio-legal scholar.

Law and Society Association

J. Willard Hurst Award in Socio-Legal HistoryLaw & Society Associationlaw-and-society
The establishment of the Law and Society Association in 1964 and of the Law and Society Review in 1966 guaranteed continuity in the scholarly activities of the Law and Society movement and allowed its members to influence legal education and policy-making in the US.
It is one of the leading professional associations for those interested in the sociology of law.

Georges Gurvitch

Gurvitch
Notably among these were Leon Petrazycki, Eugen Ehrlich and Georges Gurvitch.
Gurvitch is an important figure in the development of sociology of law.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
The relationship between law and society was sociologically explored in the seminal works of both Max Weber and Émile Durkheim.

Adam Podgórecki

Adam PodgoreckiAdam Podgòrecki
In Poland the work of Adam Podgórecki and his associates (often influenced by Petrazycki's ideas) was especially notable; in Sweden empirical research in sociology of law in this period was pioneered especially by Per Stjernquist, and in Norway by Vilhelm Aubert. Among those who were directly inspired by Petrazycki's work is the Polish legal sociologist Adam Podgórecki.
"He worked tirelessly and fearlessly" to ensure the independence of the sociology of law "against the pull of the large disciplines of sociology on the one side and law on the other" and became one of the pioneers of the sociology of law after World War II.

Roscoe Pound

PoundR PoundDean Roscoe Pound
It was developed in the United States by Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound.
(He even taught a course in Harvard's Department of Classics after he ceased to be the dean of the law school.) Pound was also the founder of the movement for "sociological jurisprudence", an influential critic of the U.S. Supreme Court's "liberty of contract" (freedom of contract) line of cases, symbolized by Lochner v. New York (1905), and one of the early leaders of the movement for American Legal Realism, which argued for a more pragmatic and public-interested interpretation of law and a focus on how the legal process actually occurred, as opposed to (in his view) the arid legal formalism which prevailed in American jurisprudence at the time.

International Institute for the Sociology of Law

The International Institute for the Sociology of Law (IISL) in Oñati is the only international establishment which is entirely devoted to teaching and promoting the sociology of law, socio-legal studies, and law and society research.

Legal pluralism

pluralisticpluralistmixed' legal system
Legal pluralism is a concept developed by legal sociologists and social anthropologists "to describe multiple layers of law, usually with different sources of legitimacy, that exist within a single state or society".
The discussion on the internal and external plurality of legal systems is called sociology of law.

Vilhelm Aubert

In Poland the work of Adam Podgórecki and his associates (often influenced by Petrazycki's ideas) was especially notable; in Sweden empirical research in sociology of law in this period was pioneered especially by Per Stjernquist, and in Norway by Vilhelm Aubert.
He was promoted to professor of the sociology of law in 1963.