Sociology of religion

sociologist of religionsociologists of religionreligionreligious sociologySociologyreligiousSocial TheologySociologicalsociological study of religionsociologist
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.wikipedia
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Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
The works of Karl Marx and Max Weber emphasized the relationship between religion and the economic or social structure of society.
Weber is best known for his thesis combining economic sociology and the sociology of religion, elaborated in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he proposed that ascetic Protestantism was one of the major "elective affinities" associated with the rise in the Western world of market-driven capitalism and the rational-legal nation-state.

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
Modern academic sociology began with the analysis of religion in Émile Durkheim's 1897 study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, a foundational work of social research which served to distinguish sociology from other disciplines, such as psychology.
He remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge, morality, social stratification, religion, law, education, and deviance.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
A number of disciplines study the phenomenon of religion: theology, comparative religion, history of religion, evolutionary origin of religions, anthropology of religion, psychology of religion (including neuroscience of religion and evolutionary psychology of religion), law and religion, and sociology of religion.

Peter L. Berger

Peter BergerBerger, Peter L.Berger
The process of comparing multiple conflicting dogmas may require what Peter L. Berger has described as inherent "methodological atheism".
Berger became known for his work in the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of religion, study of modernization, and theoretical contributions to sociological theory.

Civil religion

civic religioncivil ceremonyfoundation mythology
Contemporary debates have centered on issues such as secularization, civil religion, and the cohesiveness of religion in the context of globalization and multiculturalism. Thus later sociologists of religion (notably Robert Neelly Bellah) have extended Durkheimian insights to talk about notions of civil religion, or the religion of a state.
In the sociology of religion, civil religion is the folk religion of a nation or a political culture.

Robert N. Bellah

Robert BellahRobert Neelly BellahRobert Bellah,
Thus later sociologists of religion (notably Robert Neelly Bellah) have extended Durkheimian insights to talk about notions of civil religion, or the religion of a state.
He was internationally known for his work related to the sociology of religion.

Secularization

secularisationsecularizedsecularised
Contemporary debates have centered on issues such as secularization, civil religion, and the cohesiveness of religion in the context of globalization and multiculturalism.
At present, secularization as understood in the West is being debated in the sociology of religion.

American civil religion

civil religionworship of the Constitution
American civil religion, for example, might be said to have its own set of sacred "things": the flag of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., etc. Other sociologists have taken Durkheim's concept of what religion is in the direction of the religion of professional sports, the military, or of rock music.
The topic soon became the major focus at religious sociology conferences and numerous articles and books were written on the subject.

The Religion of India

The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and BuddhismIndiareligions of India
Max Weber published four major texts on religion in a context of economic sociology and his rationalization thesis: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1915), The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1915), and Ancient Judaism (1920).
The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism is a book on the sociology of religion written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist of the early twentieth century.

Ancient Judaism (book)

Ancient Judaism
Max Weber published four major texts on religion in a context of economic sociology and his rationalization thesis: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1915), The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1915), and Ancient Judaism (1920).
It was his fourth and last major work on the sociology of religion, after The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism and The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Sociological classifications of religious movements

religious movementchurchmovements
One common typology among sociologists, religious groups are classified as ecclesias, denominations, sects, or cults (now more commonly referred to in scholarship as new religious movements).
In the sociology of religion, the most widely used classification is the church-sect typology.

Theology

theologiantheologicaltheologians
Whereas the sociology of religion broadly differs from theology in assuming indifference to the supernatural, theorists tend to acknowledge socio-cultural reification of religious practice.

Charles Y. Glock

Charles GlockGlock, Charles Y.
For example, Charles Y. Glock is best known for his five-dimensional scheme of the nature of religious commitment.
Charles Young Glock (October 17, 1919 – October 19, 2018) was an American sociologist whose work focuses on sociology of religion and survey research.

Mervin F. Verbit

Mervin VerbitDr. Mervin Verbitsix component measure
Similarly, Mervin F. Verbit's contribution was a twenty four-dimensional religiosity measure which includes measuring religiosity through six different "components" of religiosity: ritual, doctrine, emotion, knowledge, ethics, community, and along four dimensions: content, frequency, intensity, centrality.
Mervin Feldman Verbit (born November 24, 1936) is an American sociologist whose work focuses on sociology of religion, American Jews and the American Jewish Community.

Sect

sectsMuslim sectsreligious sect
One common typology among sociologists, religious groups are classified as ecclesias, denominations, sects, or cults (now more commonly referred to in scholarship as new religious movements).
Sectarianism is sometimes defined in the sociology of religion as a worldview that emphasizes the unique legitimacy of believers' creed and practices and that heightens tension with the larger society by engaging in boundary-maintaining practices.

Consequences of religiosity

consequencesconsequences of religious belief
His list consist of the following variables: belief, knowledge, experience, practice (sometimes subdivided into private and public ritual) and consequences.
Sociologists of religion have stated that religious behaviour may have a concrete impact on a person's life.

Rodney Stark

Stark, RodneyStark
According to Rodney Stark, David Martin was the first contemporary sociologist to reject the secularization theory outright.
Rodney William Stark (born July 8, 1934) is an American sociologist of religion who was a long time professor of sociology and of comparative religion at the University of Washington.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

famous claimProtestant EthicsThe Protestant Ethic
Max Weber published four major texts on religion in a context of economic sociology and his rationalization thesis: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1915), The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1915), and Ancient Judaism (1920).
Weber moved beyond Protestantism with his research but would continue research into sociology of religion within his later works (the study of Judaism and the religions of China and India).

David Martin (sociologist)

David Martin
According to Rodney Stark, David Martin was the first contemporary sociologist to reject the secularization theory outright.
David Alfred Martin, FBA (30 June 1929 – 8 March 2019) was a British sociologist and Anglican priest who studied and wrote extensively about the sociology of religion.

Religiosity

religious valuesreligious commitmentreligiousness
Some sociologists of religion explore the theoretical analysis of the sociological dimensions of religiosity.
Charles Glock's five-dimensional approach (Glock, 1972: 39) was among the first of its kind in the field of sociology of religion.

William Sims Bainbridge

William BainbridgeBainbridgeBainbridge, William Sims
Stark is well known for pioneering, with William Sims Bainbridge, a theory of religious economy, according to which societies that restrict supply of religion, either through an imposed state religious monopoly or through state-sponsored secularization, are the main causes of drops in religiosity.
Bainbridge is most well known for his work on the sociology of religion.

Definition of religion

as much as any other
Durkheim's definition of religion, from Elementary Forms, is as follows: "A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them."

Thomas Luckmann

Luckmann
Thomas Luckmann maintains that the sociology of religion should cease preoccupations with the traditional and institutionalized forms of religion.
His contributions were central to studies in sociology of communication, sociology of knowledge, sociology of religion, and the philosophy of science.

The Religion of China

The Religion of China: Confucianism and TaoismChinesehis 1920 treatment of the religion in China
Max Weber published four major texts on religion in a context of economic sociology and his rationalization thesis: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1915), The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1915), and Ancient Judaism (1920).